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Chest and Lungs A&P

Anatomy and Physiology of Chest and lungs

Primary muscles of respiration diaphragm and intercostal muscles
Which muscles increase the AP diameter of the chest during inspiration? External intercostal muscles
Location of division of the trachea in into right and left main bronchi T4 or T5
Right lung may be higher due to fulness of the dome of the liver
Posteriorly, the lower lobe of the lungs extends from T3 to T10
A visible and palpable angulation of the sternum and the point at which the second rib articulates with the sternum. manubriosternal junction (angle of louis)
One can count the ribs and the intercostal spaces from what point manubriosternal junction (angle of Louis)
The number of each intercostal space correspond to that of rib immediately above it.
A depression, easily palpable and most often visible at the base of the ventral aspect of the neck, just superior to the manubriosternal junction. Suprasternal notch.
The angle formed by the blending together of the costal margins at the sternum. It is usually no more than 90 degress, with he ribs inserted at approximately 45-degree angles Costal angel
The spinous process of C7. Vertebra prominens
This can be more readily seen and felt with the patient's head bent forward. Vertebra prominens
The chest of the newborn generally has a round chest, with the AP diameter being equal to the lateral diameter, until what age? 2 years
thin wall, with bony structure more prominent, xiphoid precess is often more movable and prominent Chest wall of infant and young child
Dynamics that create changes in respiratory function of the pregnant woman enlarged uterus, increased level of circulating progesterone,
Results from loss of muscle strength in the thorax and diaphragm, loss of lung resiliency, and stiffening and decreased expansion of the chest wall barrel chest that is seen in many older adults
Alveoli change in older adults less elastic and relatively more fibrous
Associated loss of some of the interalveolar folds decreases the alveolar surface available for gas exchange
Net result of changes in older adult chest and lungs decrease in vital capacity and increase in residual volume