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Unit 2

Health care system (Chapter 6) is the totality of services offered by all health disciplines.
Licensed vocational nurse (LVN, Chapter 6) provides direct client care under the direction of a registered nurse, physician, or other licensed practitioner.
Managed Care (Chapter 6) describes a health care system whose goals are to provide cost-effective, quality care that focuses on decreased costs and improved outcomes for groups of clients.
Case management (Chapter 6) describes a range of models for integrating health care services for individuals or groups.
Critical pathways (Chapter 6) an interdisciplinary plan or tool that specifies interdisciplinary assessments, interventions, treatments, and outcomes for health-related conditions across a time line.
Differentiated practice (Chapter 6) is a system in which the best possible use or nursing personnel is based on their educational preparation and resultant skill sets.
Team nursing (Chapter 6) the delivery of individualized nursing care to clients by a team led by a professional nurse.
Medicare (Chapter 6) 1965 Medicare amendments- to the Social Security Act provided a national and state health insurance program for older adults.
Coinsurance (Chapter 6) is the percentage share of a government-approved charge that is paid by the client; the remaining percent is paid by the plan.
Medicaid (Chapter 6) was also established in 1965 under Title 19 of the Social Security Act. It is a federal public assistance program paid out of general taxes to people who require financial assistance, such as people with low income.
Supplemental Security Income Benefits, SSI (Chapter 6) Persons with disabilities or those who are blind are eligible.
Diagnosis related groups, DRGs (Chapter 6) The system has categories that establish pretreatment diagnosis billing categories.
Health maintenance organization (HMO, Chapter 6) is a group health care agency that provides health maintenance and treatment services to voluntary enrollees.
Preferred provider organization (PPO, Chapter 6) consists of a group of providers and perhaps a health care agency (often a hospital) that provide an insurance company or employer with health services at a discounted rate.
Preferred provider assignments (PPA, Chapter 6) similar to PPOs. The main difference is that the PPAs can be contracted with individual health care providers, whereas PPOs involve an organization of health care providers.
Independent practice associations (IPA, Chapter 6) somewhat like HMOs and PPOs. The IPA provides care in offices, just as the providers belonging to a PPO do. The difference is that clients pay a fixed prospective payment to IPA, and the IPA pays provider.
Integrated delivery system (IDS, Chapter 6) Such a system incorporates acute care services, home health care, extended and skilled care facilities, and outpatient services.
Holism (Chapter 16) Emphasizes that nurse must keep the whole person in mind and strive to understand how one area of concern relates to the whole person.
Homeostasis (Chapter 16) describes the relative constancy of the internal processes of the body, such as blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and fluid and electrolyte balance. May vary but remains relatively constant.
Equilibrium (Chapter 16) or balance, through adaptation to that environment. Homeostasis, then, is the tendency of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while continually changing.
Self-regulation (Chapter 16) means that homeostatic mechanisms come into lay automatically in the healthy person.
Compensatory (Chapter 16) Homeostatic mechanisms are compensatory (counterbalancing) because they tend to counteract conditions that are abnormal for the person.
System (Chapter 16) a set of interacting identifiable parts or components. The fundamental components of a system are matter, energy, and communication.
Boundary (Chapter 16) The boundary of a system, such as the skin in the human system, is a real or imaginary line that differentiates one system from another system or a system from its environment.
Closed system (Chapter 16) Does not exchange energy, matter, or information with its environment; it receives no input form the environment and gives no output to the environment.
Open system (Chapter 16) Energy, matter, ad information move into and out of the system through the system's boundary.
Input (Chapter 16) consists of information, material, or energy that enters the system. After the input is absorbed by the system, it is processed in a way useful to the system. This info is called "throughput."
Output (Chapter 16) output from a system is energy, matter, or information given out by the system as a result of its processes.
Feedback (Chapter 16) is the mechanism by which some of the output of a system is returned to the system as input.
Negative feedback (Chapter 16) inhibits change.
Positive feedback (Chapter 16) stimulates change.
Psychological homeostasis (Chapter 16) refers to emotional or psychological balance or a state of mental well-being.
Primary prevention (Chapter 16) focuses on (a) health promotion (b) protection against specific health problems (e.g., immunizations agains hep B). The purpose is to decrease the risk or exposure of the individual or community to disease.
Secondary prevention (Chapter 16) focuses on (a) early identification of health problems and (b) prompt intervention to alleviate health problems. Its goal is to identify individuals in an early stage of a disease process and to limit future disability.
Tertiary prevention (Chapter 16) focuses on restoration and rehabilitation with the goal of returning the individual to an optimal level of functioning.
Health promotion (Chapter 16) "behavior motivated by the desire to increase well-being and actualize human health potential."
Disease prevention or Health protection (Chapter 16) "behavior motivated by a desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness."
Precontemplation stage (Chapter 16) the person does not think about change his or her behavior in the next 6 months.
Contemplation stage (Chapter 16) the person acknowledges having a problem, seriously considers changing a specific behavior, actively gathers information, and verbalizes plans to change the behavior in the near future (e.g. next 6 months).
Preparation stage (Chapter 16) occurs when the person intends to take action in the immediate future (e.g. within the next month).
Action stage (Chapter 16) occurs when the person actively implements behavioral and cognitive strategies of the action plan to interrupt previous health risk behaviors and adopt new ones.
Maintenance stage (Chapter 16) the person strives to prevent relapse by integrating newly adopted behaviors into his or her lifestyle.
Termination stage (Chapter 16) is the ultimate goal where the individual has complete confidence that the problem is no longer a temptation or threat.
Health risk assessment (HRA, Chapter 16) is an assessment and educational tool that indicates a client's risk for disease or injury during the net 10 years by comparing the client's risk with the mortality risk of the corresponding age, sex, and racial group.
Wellness diagnoses (Chapter 16) "describes human responses to levels of wellness in an individual, family, or community that have a readiness for enhancement"
Baby boomers (Chapter 22) born in years 1945-1964
Generation X (Chapter 22) birth years 1965-1978
Generation Y (Chapter 22) of the Millennials born in years 1979-2000
Boomerang kids (Chapter 22) young adults moving back to parents homes after an intiial period of independent living.
Intimacy (Chapter 22) very close friendship
Papanicolaou (Pap test, Chapter 22) is done by obtaining and examining cells from the uterine cervical os.
Maturity (Chapter 22) is the state of maximal function and integration, or the state of being fully developed.
Menopause (Chapter 22) refers to the so-called changed of life in women, when menstruation ceases.
Climacteric (andropause, Chapter 22) has been used to denote the change in sexual response in men.
Generativity (Chapter 22) is defined as the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation.
Ageism (Chapter 23) is used to describe negative attitudes toward aging or older adults. It's discrimination based solely on age.
Gerontology (Chapter 23) is a term used to define the study of aging and older adults.
Geriatrics (Chapter 23) is associated with the medical care (e.g., diseases and disabilities)
Assisted living (Chapter 23) Older adults who do not feel safe living alone or required additional help with ADLs may desire assisted living. The assisted living facility provides meals, weekly activities, and a pleasant environment to socialize with other residents.
Alzheimer's disease (AD, Chapter 23) is characterized by progressive dementia, memory loss, and inability to care for oneself.
Adult day care (Chapter 23) the focus is on social activities and health care.
Sacropenia (Chapter 23) Steady decrease in muscle fibers.
Kyphosis (Chapter 23) humpback of the upper spine
Osteoporosis (Chapter 23) a pathologic decrease in bone density that is more common in older than younger adults, may lead to spontaneous fractures.
Pathologic fractures (Chapter 23) Spontaneous fractures (i.e. without a fall or other trauma to the bone)
Presbyopia (Chapter 23) the inability to focus or accommodate due to a loss of flexibility of the lens, causes decreased near vision.
Cataracts (Chapter 23) lens opacity that occurs in nearly all older adults by the age of 80.
Presbycusis (Chapter 23) The loss of hearing ability related to aging.
Dyspnea (Chapter 23) difficulty breathing ofter occurs with physically demanding activities, such as running for a bus or carrying heavy parcels upstairs.
Disengagement theory (Chapter 23) developed in the early 1960s proposed that aging involves mutual withdrawal between the older person and others in the older person's environment.
Activity theory (Chapter 23) the best way to age is to stay active physically and mentally.
The continuity theory (Chapter 23) proposes that people maintain their values, habits, and behavior in old age.
e-health (Chapter 23) used to describe the use of technology in the delivery of health care and health information.
Perception (Chapter 23) or the ability to interpret the environment, depends on the acuteness of the sense.
Sensory memory (Chapter 23) Momentary perception of stimuli from the environment.
Short-term memory (Chapter 23) information held in the brain for immediate use or what one has in mind at a give moment.
Recent memory (Chapter 23) the recent past of minutes to a few hours
Lont-term memory (Chapter 23) Encoding during which the information leaves short-termmemory and enters long-term memory. Info stored for periods longer than 72 hours a,d usually weeks and years.
Hypothermia (Chapter 23) is a body temperature below normal.
Dementia (Chapter 23) Progressive loss of cognitive function.
Created by: lissy0613