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Unit 1

Theory (Chapter 3) may be defined as a system of ideas that is presumed to explain a given phenomenon.
Practice discipline(Chapter 3) fields of study in which the central focus is performance of a professional role (e.g., nursing, teaching, management, music).
Conceptual framework (Chapter 3) is a group of related ideas, statements, or concepts.
Grand theories (Chapter 3) those that articulate a broad range of the significant relationships among the concepts of a discipline.
Paradigm (Chapter 3) refers to a pattern of shared understandings and assumptions about reality and the world.
Metaparadigm (Chapter 3) person, environment, health, and nursing. These four concepts can be superimposed on almost any work in nursing, they are collectively referred to as the metaparadigm for nursing.
Client (Chapter 3) is the recipient of nursing care (individuals, families, groups, and communities).
Environment (Chapter 3) the internal and external surroundings that affect the client. This includes people in the physical environment, such as families, friends, and significant others.
Health (Chapter 3) is the degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences.
Nursing (Chapter 3) is the attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or in conjunction with, the client.
Midlevel theories (Chapter 3) the focus on the exploration of concepts such as pain, self-esteem, learning, and hardiness.
Critical theory (Chapter 3) is used in academia to describe theories that help elucidate how social structures affect a wide variety of human experiences from art to social practices.
Philosophy (Chapter 3) is a belief system, often an early effort to define nursing phenomena, and serves as the basis for later theoretical formulations.
Health (Chapter 17) was defined in terms of the presence or absence of disease.
Wellness (Chapter 17) is a state of well-being. Basic aspects of wellness include self-responsiblityl an ultimate goal; a dynamic, growing process; daily decision making in the areas of nutrition, stress management, physical fitness, preventative health care & emotional health
Well-being (Chapter 17) is a subjective perception of vitality and feeling well. Can be described objectively, experienced, and measured, and can be plotted on a continuum. Component of health.
Lifestyle (Chapter 17) refers to a person's general way of living, including living conditions and individual patterns of behavior that are influenced by sociocultural factors and personal characteristics.
Risk factors (Chapter 17) Practices that have potentially negative side effects on health.
Locus of Control (LOC, Chapter 17) a concept from social learning theory that nurses can use to determine whether clients are likely to take action regarding health, that it, whether clients believe that their health status is under their own or others' control.
Adherence (Chapter 17) the extent to which an individual's behavior (for example, taking medications, following diets, or making lifestyle changes) coincides with medical or health advice.
Illness (Chapter 17) Is a highly personal state in which the person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is thought to be diminished.
Disease (Chapter 17) can be described as an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or a shortening of the normal life span.
Etiology (Chapter 17) The causation of a disease or condition. A description of the etiology of a disease includes the identification of all causal factors that act together to bring about the particular disease.
Acute illness (Chapter 17) is typically characterized by symptoms of relatively short duration.
Chronic illness (Chapter 17) is one that lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer, and often for the person's life.
Remission (Chapter 17) when the symptoms disappear.
Exacerbation (Chapter 17) when the symptoms reappear.
Illness behavior (Chapter 17) a coping mechanism, involves ways individuals describe, monitor, and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions,and use the health.
Stress (Chapter 42) is a condition in which the person experiences changes in the normal balanced state.
Stressor (Chapter 42) is any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress.
Stimulus-based stress models (Chapter 42) stress is defined as a stimulus, a life event, or a set of circumstances that arouses physiological and/or psychological reactions that may increase the individual's vulnerability to illness.
General adaptation syndrome (GAS, Chapter 42) stress syndrome
Local adaptation syndrome (LAS, Chapter 42) the body reacting locally. One organ or a part of the body reacts alone (example: inflammation).
Alarm reaction (Chapter 42) initial reaction of the body. Alerts the body's defenses.
Shock phase (Chapter 42) the stressor may be perceived consciously or unconsciously by the person.
Countershock phase (Chapter 42) second part of the alarm reaction. The changes produced in the body during the shock phase are reversed.
Stage of resistance (Chapter 42) is when the body's adaptation takes place.
Stage of exhaustion (Chapter 42) the adaptation that the body made during the second stage cannot be maintained.
Transactional stress theory (Chapter 42) encompasses a set of cognitive, affective, and adaptive (coping) responses that arise out of person-environement transactions.
Anxiety (Chapter 42) a state of mental uneasiness, apprehension, dread, or foreboding or a feeling of helplessness related to an impending or anticipated unidentified threat to self or significant relationships.
Fear (Chapter 42) is an emotion or feeling or apprehension aroused by impending or seeming danger, pain, or another perceived threat.
Anger (Chapter 42) is an emotional state consisting of a subjective feeling of animosity or strong displeasure.
Depression (Chapter 42) is an extreme feeling of sadness, despair, dejection, lack of worth, or emptiness, affects millions of Americans a year.
Ego defense mechanism (Chapter 42) unconscious psychological adaptive mechanisms or, according to Anna Freud, mental mechanisms that develop as the personality attempts to defend itself, establish compromises among conflicting impulses, and calm inner tensions.
Coping (Chapter 42) may be described as dealing with change- successfully or unsuccessfully.
Coping strategy (Chapter 42) a natural or learned way of responding to a changing environment or specific problem or situation.
Caregiver burden (Chapter 42) reaction to long-term stress in family members who undertake the care of a person in the home for a long period. It produces responses such as chronic fatigue, sleeping difficulties, and high blood pressure.
Crisis intervention (Chapter 42) a short-term helping process of assisting clients to (a) work through a crisis to its resolution and (b) restore their precrisis level of functioning.
Burnout (Chapter 42) a complex syndrome of behaviors that can be likened to the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
Loss (Chapter 43) an actual or potential situation in which something that is valued is changed or no longer available.
Actual loss (Chapter 43) can be recognized by others.
Perceived loss (Chapter 43) is experienced by the person but cannot be verified by others.
Anticipatory loss (Chapter 43) is experienced before the loss actually occurs.
Grief (Chapter 43) is the total response to the emotional experience related to loss.
Bereavement (Chapter 43) is the subjective response experienced by the surviving loved ones.
Mourning (Chapter 43) is the behavioral process through which grief is eventually resolved or altered; it is often influenced by culture, spiritual beliefs, and custom.
Anticipatory grief (Chapter 43) is experienced in advance of the event such as the wife who grieves before her ailing husband dies.
Complicated grief (Chapter 43) unhealthy grief exists when the strategies to cope with the loss are maladaptive.
Heart-lung death (Chapter 43) the traditional clinical signs of death were cessation of the apical pulse, respirations, and blood pressure.
Cerebral death or higher death (Chapter 43) which occurs when the higher brain center, the cerebral cortez, is irreversibly destroyed.
Closed awareness (Chapter 43) the client is not made aware of impeding death.
Mutual pretense (Chapter 43) the client, family, and health personnel know that the prognosis is terminal but do not talk about it and make an effort not to raise the subject.
Open awareness (Chapter 43) the client and other know about the impending death and feel comfortable discussing it, even though it is difficult.
Hospice (Chapter 43) focuses on support and care of the dying person and family, with the goal of facilitating a peaceful and dignified death.
Palliative care (Chapter 43) an approach that improves the quality of life of clients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness.
end-of-life care (Chapter 43) Both hospice and palliative care can include end of life care, that it, the care provided in the final weeks before death.
Rigor mortis (Chapter 43) is the stiffening of the body that occurs about 2 to 4 hours after death.
Algor mortis (Chapter 43) the gradual decrease of the body's temperature after death.
Livor mortis (Chapter 43) discoloration that appears in the lowermost or dependent areas of the body.
Mortician or undertaker (Chapter 43) a person trained in care of the dead.
Shroud (Chapter 43) a large piece of plastic or cotton material used to enclose a body after death.
Created by: lissy0613