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MC Research Midterm

MC 2013 spring with Collins

Nursing Research a scientific process that validates & refines existing knowledge & generates new knowledge that directly & indirectly influences nursing practice
Knowledge information acquired in a variety of ways
Scientific Method 1. Selecting & defining a problem 2. formulating research question(s) or hypotheses or both 3. collecting data 4. analyzing data 5. reporting results
Nursing Metaparadigm person, environment, health, & nurisng
Quantitative methods emphasize measurement, testing of hypothese, & statistical anaylsis.
Examples of Quantitative methods experiments, questionaires, surveys
descriptive research describes a phenomenon
correlational research relationships between & among 2 variables
Quasi-experimental research 2 groups experimental & comparison but specific group
Experimental research random ground unlike Quasi specific group
Qualitative methods emphasize understanding of phenomena from the individual's perspective
Examples of Qualitative methods interviews, case studeis, narrative analysis
phenomenological research what is it like ofr them. lots of interviews
grounded theory research what the process or how they do something
ethnographic research how background, depth, culture, implications
historical research how we have changed
triangulation use of qualitative & quantitative methods to collect data about a phenomena
What is used to develop policy? outcomes
Florence Nightingale focused on which metaparadigm? environment
During the 1950-60s nursing research focused on what? quantitative research
During the 1970s nursing research focused on what? standards for clinical practice development & starting research journals
During the 1990s nursing research focused on what? outcomes research
What is the process of nursing research? 1. Define a problem 2. design research 3. collect data
What occurs during Phase 1? identify problem & develop purpose, identify & define variables, formulate research question & hypotheses, & perform literature review
What occurs during Phase 2? identify sample & setting & define measurements
What occurs during Phase 3? data collection
What occurs during Phase 4? analyze data & interpret findings
What occurs during Phase 5? disseminate research findings & non-disseminated research is useless research
Basic research obtain empirical data to develop, refine, or test theory. not immediately concerned with application to clinical practice. wants to know underlying mechanisms to interventions
example of Basic research effect of pressure on tissue
applied research concerned with effect of an intervention on a patient. performed in practice setting
example of applied research turning patient to relieve pressure
experimental research manipulation & control of variable(s) & observing affects of manipulations on other variables
true experimental manipulation of independent variables with random assignments of subjects to groups required. a control group is required.
quasi-experimental manipulation of independent variables. convenience sample or matched groups. controls may or not be present.
retrospective analysis of data collected in the past. less control & reliable
prospective analysis of data collected in the present. more control & reliable
cross-sectional data collected at 1 point in time with no follow-up
longitudinal follows group subjects & collects data at set intervals over a set time period
original research unique or new research idea is focus for advanced researchers. often a dissertation, funded research project, or program
replication research replicates or repeats a study to confirm original findings. encouraged for novice or new researchers
Types of quantitative research descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, experimental
Types of qualitative research phenomenological, grounded theory, ethnographic, & historical
research problem situation in need of a solution, improvement, or alteration; or a discrepancy between the way things are & the way they ought to be
problem statement must have what top 3 things 1. justify need 2. current 3. significant for nursing
problem statements also need to be researchable thinking moves from abstract to concrete allow for data collection defines variables clear concise statement goals, aim, focus, or objective of the study includes population & setting
variables qualities,properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that are manipulated or measured in research that must vary
conceptual variable abstract meaning of a variable that usually is based on theory
operational variable a way of defining a variable that makes it measurable or manipulable in the real world
independent variables treatment, stimulus, manipulated, experimental
dependent variables outcome, effect, response
IV & DV which depends on which variability in the DV is presumed to depend on the variability in the IV
extraneous variables not directly related to the purpose of the study but may affect the DV. need to control to minimize influence on DV.
What is the most common source for research problems? nursing practice
literature review the process of examining an extensive number of research & theoretical sources to generate a picture of what is known & not known about a topic of interest or particular problem
literature review in a research report summary of current empirical & theoretical knowledge about a problem that provides basis for the study conducted
primary source directly telling you what they found. they conducted the study
secondary source tells what's out there & current state & their interpretation
research questions a concise, interrogative statement written in the present tense that includes 1 or more variables or concepts
hypotheses a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between 2 or more variables. capable of empirical testing. translates a research question into precise prediction of expected outcomes
When are hypotheses not used? qualitative or descriptive quantitative
simple hypothesis expresses the relationship between 1 IV & 1 DV
complex expresses relationship between 2 or more IV &/or 2 DV
directional hypothesis a hypothesis that specifies the expected direction of the relationship between variables
nondirectional hypothesis a hypothesis that does not stipulate direction of the relationship. predicts 2 or more variables that are related. no predictions of the relationship are made.
directional or non: if direction of relationship is unknown non-directional
directional or non: relationship in either direction is of importance or interest non-directional
directional or non: if you really don't care about the other direction. it is not important. directional
research hypothesis states what the researcher thinks is true
null hypothesis a statement of no relationship between 2 variables so that its rejection provides support for the research hypothesis
if you accept the null hypothesis then does a relationship exist? no at least not statistically
Nuremberg Code 1st international effort to establish ethical standards in research including: voluntary consent, subject capacity to give consent, free choice, knowledge of the study, ability to stop at anytime
Declaration of Helsinki created by the world medical association that emphasized ethical principles for medical research including human subjects. research must conform to generally accepted scientific standards based on knowledge of literature, consent written
Which codifying work was noted for introducing legal guardians to be able to enroll subjects Declaration of Helsinki
The Belmont Report articulated ethical princliples on which standards of ethical conduct in research are based. Model for research guidelines by various disciplines. USA. National Research Act est. IRB & bioethical research
Principles of Research Ethics respect for persons/human dignity, beneficence, & justice
Principle of Respect for Human Dignity self-determination, full disclosure, voluntary consent, & diminished autonomy equality
Principle of Beneficence freedom from harm, freedom for exploitation, risk/benefit ratios
Principle of Justice fair treatment & right to privacy
anonymity no identifying info. difficult in quantitative.
Vulnerable populations minors, mentally or physically disabled, institutionalized persons, & pregnant women
Informed consent elements 1. essential info for consent 2. comprehension of consent information 3. competency to give consent 4. voluntary consent 4. assent vs. consent
IRB 3 possibilities 1. exempt from review 2. expedited review 3. complete institutional review
exempt from review procedures students doing research but will not publish
expedited review procedures low to minimum risk
complete institutional review procedures all steps taken to ensure ethical study
Function of IRB protection of rights & welfare, voluntary informed consent, & benefits exceed risks
6 Questions to ask when critiquing the ethics of a study 1. was it approved by IRB 2. informed consent obtained 3. subjects incompetent to give consent did legally authorized rep give consent 4. rights protected 5. privacy protected 6. benefit-risk ration acceptable
What was the date Beecher Article written? June 16, 1966
What school was listed in the footnotes of Beecher's Article? Harvard Medical School
Where was the General Hospital located in that was listed in the $ chart on 1st page of Beecher article? Massachusetts
According to the last footnote in the Beecher Article can evidence unconstitutionally obtained be used in an judicial decision no matter how important it is to the decision? No
In the summary of the Beecher article what were some of the high points? informed consent, capable of understanding what it is, gain is anticipated & it outweighs the risk, & results must be made clear
Which Code: addresses the protection of human subjects & basic principles of ethical behavior Nuremberg
Which Code: need for subjects to be informed of the benefits & harms of the study prior to participation Helisinki
1950-60's quantitative & educational studeies
1970 Standards of Practice
1990 outcome research
Created by: midnight1854