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Acid Base Info

Acid Base Causes and S&S

Metabolic acidosis -Action inability of kidneys to excrete acid or conserve base
Metabolic acidosis -Causes diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Overdose aspirin (salicylate) shock sepsis severe diarrhea renal failure
Metabolic acidosis -SE headache Low BP hyperkalemia muscle twitching warm, flushed skin (vasodilation) N/V/D altered LOC (confused, drowsiness) Kussmal Respirations -compensatory hyperventilation
Respiratory acidosis -Action -retention of CO2 by lungs
Respiratory acidosis -Causes Decreased respiratory response - Anesthesia, Med overdose obstructed airway PE COPD Pnumonia Atelectasis
Respiratory acidosis -SE Hypoventilation leading to Hypoxia rapid, shallow respirations Decreased BP (vasodilation) Dyspnea Headache Hyperkalemia Dysrhythmias (>K lvls) Altered LOC -drowsiness, dizziness, disorientation Muscle weakness Hyperreflexia
Metabolic alkalosis -Action Decreased acid or Increased base
Metabolic alkalosis -Cause severe vomiting excessive GI suctioning potassium wasting diuretics -increases loss of H+ excessive antacids (NaHCO3)
Metabolic alkalosis -SE restlessness then lethargy dysrhythmias (tachycardia) Compensatory Hypoventilation LOC -confusion, dizzy, irratable N/V/D tremors muscle cramps tingling of fingers toes
Respiratory alkalosis -Action increased loss of CO2 from lungs
Respiratory alkalosis -Cause hyperventilation anxiety inital stages of PE fear Mechanical ventilation fever hypoxia pregnancy high altitudes
Respiratory alkalosis -SE seisures deep, rapid breathing hyperventilation tachycardia low or normal BP hypokalemia numbness & tingling of extremities lethargy & confusion light headedness nausea/vomiting
Acidosis Labs Increased H ⁺ ions pH low (<7.4) CO2⁻ elevated (>45) HCO₃⁻ decreased (<21)
Alkalosis Labs Decreased H ⁺ ions pH high (>7.4) CO2⁻ decreased (<35) HCO₃⁻ elevated (>28)
Created by: Slacker