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Micro Ch.4

Test 1

Kinds of cells Eukaryotes prokaryotes
DNA in Prokaryotes DNA is not enclosed in nuclear membrane, one circular chromosome, not associated in with histones
Prokaryotic Cells no membrane enclosed organelles
DNA Eukaryotes DNA encolsed in nuclear membrane, multiple chromosomes, associated w/ histones and non histones
Eukaryotic cells golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes
Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea
Species of Bacteria are Differeniated by Morphology, chemocal composition, nutritional requirements, biochemical activities, source of energy
Basic Shapes Bacillus, cocci, spiral,
Bacillus Rod shape
Coccus spherical
Spiral Spirillum, Vibrio(comma shaped), spirochetes
Sarcinae Coccus- remain in groups of 8
Streptococci remain attached in chainlike pattern
Staphylococci fomr grapelike structures
Spirochetes helical and flexible
Unsual bacterial shapes stella and haloarcula
Shape determination heredity
Monomorphic maintain a single shape
Pleomorphic can have more than one gentically controlles shape
Pleomorphic bacteria Rhizobium, corynebacterium
Prokaryotic cell layers outer membrane, cell wall, capsule, plasma membrane, nucleoid region, ribosomes, pilus, flagellum
Glycocalyx Sugar coat on surface of many cells, made inside and secreted outside
Capsule organized and firmly attached glycocalyx
Slime layer unorganized and loosly attached glycocalyx
Purpose of capsule provides protection against phagocytosis, allow bacteria to attach to surfaces, source of nutrition, protects from dehydration
Flagella Motility
Arrangements of flagella monotrichous, amphitrichous, lophotrichous, peritrichous
Monotrichous single polar flagellum
amphitrichous tuft of flagella on both ends
lophotrichous 2 or more flagella at one pole
peritrichous flagella distributed all over cell
Parts of flagella Filament, hook, basal body
Filament long outermost part, constant diameter, composed of flagellin
flagellin globular protein, arranged in intertwining chains, forming,helix, around hollow core
Hook filament attached to it, wider, made of different protein
basal body small central rod inserted into a series of rings
gram negative basal body outer ring anchored to various portions of cells; inner ring attachedto plasma membrane
gram positive basal body one pair of rings, only one paired attached to plasma membrane
Run flagella movement is in one direction
tumbles abrupt random changes in direction
taxis movement torward or awayfrom a stimulus
Positive Taxis movement torward an attractant
Negative Taxis movement away from repellent
Axial Filament location Found on spriochetes and also called endoflagella
Axial filament made of bundles of fibrils beneath an outer sheath and spiral around cell
Fimbrae & Pili found in gm neg bacteria, shorter and thinner than flagella
composition of fimbrae & Pili made of protein called pilin
Fimbrae enables a cell to adhere to surfaces, if not present no colonizationa
Pili Sex Pili, 1 or 2 found on cells; join cells for transfer of DNA from one cell to another
the cell wall point of anchorage for flagella
pseudomurein archaea cell wall - modification of muramic acid
Peptidoglycan composed of NAG and NAM which make carbohydrate backbone
rows are linked by polypeptides that always include tetrapeptide side chains of 4 amino acids attached to NAM
Penicillin interferes with final linking of peptidoglycan rowsby peptide crossing bridge
Gram positve cell wall many layers of PTG, contain techoic acid(Lipo/Wall)
Lipotechoic Linked to plasma membrane
wall techoic linked to PTG
Gram Negative cell wall one or few layers of peptidoglycans, no techoic acid
PTG present in periplasm
Lipid A endotoxin causes fever and shock
O Polysaccahride is antigenic and ised for ID
lysozymes target cell wall- cuts the bond btwn sugars
protoplasts help rebuild cell wall
Osmotic lysis Destruction of protoplast and spheroplasts
Passive process substance moves from higher concentration to lower concentration w/o energy
Active process substance moves from area of lower concentration to higher concentration w/ energy
hypotonic solution cell with weak cell wall may burst
hypertonic bacterial cells shrink and collapse
group translocation only prokaryotes- special type of active transport
Group translocation energy Phosphoenol Pyruvic Acid (PEP)
Plasmids small circular double stranded DNA which are extra- chromosomal- carry genes for abx resistance.
70S prokaryotic ribosomes composed of 50S and 30S
50S large subunit attacked by erythromycin and cloramphenicol
30S smaller subunit attacked by mycin's
Created by: nani012506