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Ch. 10 Questions


Because viruses are incapable of replicating outside of a host, they are called---------? obligate intracellular parasites
What is the size of the largest virus? 1/25 the size of the smallest bacterium
What are bacterial viruses called? bacteriophages or just phages
How does a bacteriophage penetrate the host cell wall? in addition to attachment factors--often have a needlelike tube used to propel through bacterial envelope & inject their nucleic acid into the host cell
Capsomere viral protein that forms the coat around the viral nucleic acid
Capsid protein shell made of capsomeres
Necleocapsid capsid covering plus the nucleic acid
Envelope additional covering made of membrane from the host cell and viral proteins
Virion intact viral particle with its appropriate coating layers
Icosahedron twenty identical sides
List the 2 main components of nucleocapsids capsid and nucleic acid
What are nonenveloped viruses called? naked viruses
The placement of viruses into families depends upon which characteristic? structural features--general size & shape--whether they are naked/enveloped--is nucleic acid DNA/RNA
What part of the envelope comes from the host cell and what part from the virus? membrane is from the host cell and the attachement proteins are from the virus
What type of molecule in an enveloped virus is necessary for attachment to the host cell? viral attachment protein that protrudes outside of the viral envelope
Adsprption of the virus to the cell depends upon what specific viral and cellular components? viral attachment protein and a cell receptor
What are two types oof penetration? endocytosis and membrane fussion
Where and how does the process of uncoating take place? uncoating is the removal of the viral capsid protein by cellular enzymes in the cell cytoplasm
Where does DNA and RNA replication take place? cell nucleus for DNA and in the cytoplasm for RNA
Where does viral translation occur? host cytoplasm
How does the assembly of intact virions occur? proteins from the coating vind to each other and to proper nucleic acid--enables nucleocapsid to zip together without outside energy
Describe how the release of virions can occur by cell lysis or budding. naked virus simply lyses the cell to release virions--enveloped virus acquires membbrane from the host as it passes through the cell membrane
How many phages/virions can be produced in a single growth cycle? about 100 phages per bacterium--about 300,000 animal virions per animal cell
What are the differences between lytic and lysogenic viruses? Lytic always kill the host cell by breaking it open--lysogenic enter cell where DNA integrates into host cell--becomes part of it--divide with the cell--if host cell becomes sick lysogenic viruses lyse and escape dying cell
What are cytopathic effects? when a viral specimen is placed on human tissue cells in a culture medium--cytopathic effect is visible changes, microscopic/otherwise in cells resulting from viral infection
What is a plaque? specific type of CPE where cells are killed so loss of cells gives rise to a hole in the cell layer
How is the inclusion body type of CPE observed? normally seen in the microscope as dark areas of viral material
What are the resulting large cells called when many cells fuse together as a result of viral infection? syncytia or giant cells
What changes occur during transformation? viruses cause the cells to keep growing uncontrollably and pile up or form a tumor
What do viruses do to the host DNA-sythesizing machinery? subvert the host cell machinery into making viruses rather than cellular materials
What type of nucleic acid is in a virion? either RNA or DNA but not both
Why is tumorigenesis only associated with DNA viruses or retroviruses? only occurs when a cell's genes are altered to cause uncontrollable cell division--only DNA can integrate into cell's chromosome--chromosome is DNA
Created by: heatherlvn