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Microbio Ch 1

Test 1

Define Microorganism too small to be seen with the unaided eye
Define Germ rapidly growing cell
Carolus Linnaeus Est. binomial nomenclature
Types of microorganism Bacteria,archaea,fungi,protozoa,algae,multicellualr animal parasites, viruses
Bacteria Prokaryotes- unicellular
Bacterial shapes Bacillus,coccus,spiral,stella
bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan
Archaea Prokaryotes- non pathogenic
archaea wall may or may not have a cell wall- no peptidoglycan
main archaea groups methanogen,halophiles,thermophiles
Fungi Eukaryotes
fungi groups yeast (uni), mold, mushroom (multi)
Fungi cell wall CHITIN
Protozoa Eukaryotes- unicellular
Protozoa Moves by pseudopods,flagella, or cilia
Algae Eukaryotes- uni/multicellular
Algae Cell wall Cellulose
Helminths Eukaryotes- multicellular
Viruses Acellular
Characteristics of Viruses so small need an electron microscope to view, simple,core contain DNA or RNA
Virus Core surrounded by protein coat
Virus protein coat may be encased by an additional layer "envelope"
Carl Woese devised the 3 domains
Domain System Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Robert Hooke reported things were composed of boxes or cells. Marked beginning of cell theory
Rudolf Virchow Cells arise from preexisting cells "biogenesis"
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek 1st to observe live microorganisms "animalcules"
Spontaneous Generation (abiogenesis) form of life could arise spontaneously from non living matter.
Biogenesis Living organisms arise from preexisting life
Francisco Redi BG- maggots do not arise from decaying meat
John Needham SG- uses nutrient broth poured into a covered flask = microbes
Spallanzani BG- challenged Needham
Pasteur BG- microbes can be present in non living matter, can be destroyed by heat, aseptic techniques can be used
Bassi proved silkworm disease was caused by fungus
Semmelweis demonstrated that hand washing prevented disease
Lister Knew phenol killed bacteria
Koch discovered the cause of anthrax- 1st to prove bacteria caused infections
Koch's postualtes sequence of experimental steps to relate a specific microbe to a specific disease.
Ed Jenner figured out that if you had cow pox you can't get small pox
Modern Chemotherapy treatment of disease w/ chemicals
Snythetic drugs Man-Made in a lab
antibiotics prepared naturally by bacteria & fungi
P. Ehrlich Magic bullet- hunt down and destroy pathogen w/o harming host.
1st synthetic drug salvarsan (salva(salvation) + arsen(arsenic)
Salvarsan used to treat syphyilis
Fleming mold contamination- named it penicillin
Heidi Schulz studied bacteriology -discovered T. namibiensis
T. namibiensis visible with unaided eye, consumes hydrogen sulfide
Iwanowski studied virology- reported a disease caused by tobacco
Rebecca Lancefield studied immunology- proposed serotyping for streptococci
Interferons protein released by animal cells, usually in reponse to the entry of a virus that has the property of inhibiting virus replication.
Paul Berg recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA DNA made from 2 different sources
Emerging Infectious Diseases caused by prions, bacteria, protozoa, fungi,viruses
West nile encephalitis inflammation of brain (Uganda)
Ebola Fatal, natural reservoir unknown, (Ebola River)
Hantavirus Caused by virus called sin sombre, fatal, contagious, (Hantaan rover)
AIDs caused by HIV, destroys CD4 cells
Cryptosporidiosis Eukaryote, causes diarrhea, (wisconsin)
Bovine Spongiform Mad cow disease- caused by PRION (infectious protein)
CJD human type fo mad cow diease
E.Coli O157:H7 could be fatal, produces bloody diarrhea
MRSA penicillin resistant Staph aureus
Created by: nani012506