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HCC Infectious Dise.

Study tools for Medical emergencies test

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by? Infestation organisms- Bacteria, viruses, fungi, Protozoan, worms
Which two are the #1 threats to prehospital personnel Hep C and HIV
Describe Bacteria Microscopic, single-celled organisms which are prokaryotes with no distinct nucleus. They also release Exotoxins and Endotoxins
Define endotoxins: •Release upon the death of bacterial cell •Cause generalized body aches  Non-specific •Ex: Septic shock
Define exotoxins: •Release from living bacteria during infections • Travel in bloodstream/lymph •Cause specific/localized problems •Ex: Tetanus
Viruses: Smaller than bacteria Require assistance of another organism for survival Intracellular parasites  Must invade cells  Take over, change DNA, replicate, produce more viruses Most mild and self-limiting
Prions Abnormally folded proteins that cause disease
Fungi Responsible for minor skin infections Affects those with impaired immune systems more frequently Ex: Mycoses, Vaginitis, Athlete’s Foot
Protozoa Single cells parasite Flexible membranes with ability to move Opportunistic Enter by fecal-oral or mosquito bites Ex: Forms of gastroenteritis and vaginal (trichomoniasis
Parasites Range from small, unicellular organisms to large intestinal worms
Describe how an indirect transmission of a disease occurs Occurs person to person through cough, sneeze, kiss, or sexual contact
What is the definition of hematology? The study of blood and blood forming organs
Hematology disorders can expose the patient to what type of disorders RBC disorders WBC disorders Platelet disorders Coagulation disorders
The hematopoietic system is comprised of Blood Bone marrow Liver Spleen Kidney
What are pluripotent stem cells? Cells that have the ability to differentiate into the various blood cells  Hematopoiesis
extramedullary hematopoiesis fetal development hematopoiesis occurs outside the bone marrow.
What is erythropoietin? A hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates production of RBCs
Where is erythropoietin made? Peritubular capillary endothelial cells in the kidney and liver
What is hematocrit? the fraction of the total volume of blood that consists of red blood cells
Albumin Most abundant plasma protein  Comprises approx. ½ of blood serum protein Essential for maintaining osmotic pressure needed for proper distribution of body fluids between intravascular compartments and body tissues
Globulins transport other proteins and provide immunity to disease
Fibrinogen Clotting protein produced in the liver, circulates in the blood in inactive states
The Bohr Effect States that an increasing [H+] and/or [CO2] will reduce the oxygen affinity of Hb. if the pH drops below 7.4  Decreased ability of Hb to bind O2
Factors that causes the oxyhemoglobin curve to shift to the right and to release O2 Acidosis, >CO2, >Tempt. > 2-3DPG
What causes a left shift of the curve and O2 binding affinity to increase: Alkalosis  temperature
What is the Haldane effect? A property of Hb that states that deoxygenation of blood  ability to carry CO2 Oxygenated blood has  capacity for CO2 Enhances removal of CO2 from oxygen-consuming tissues and promotes dissociation of CO2 from Hb in the presence of O2 (in the lungs)
Why does O2 release readily from the Hb during exercise?  temperature   Hb binding affinity to O2   O2 to peripheral tissues and end organs
erythropoiesis. RBC production
What is the normal RBC count and Hb level in Males: Hb= 12.0-15.0g/dL Females: Hb= 10.5-14.0g/
What are marginated WBCs? Attach more firmly to the vascular lining through adhesion  May then leave blood vessel by diapedisis
What is meant by demargination? When does it occur? Detachment of WBC from vascular lining during chemotaxis  Movement to infection site
Leukopoiesis is generation of WBCs.
neutrophils Do not stain blue or red
What is neutropenia and how does it occur: Presence of abnormally few neutrophils in the blood  Increased susceptibility to infection Indicates a problem in WBC production in the bone marrow or problem with increased destruction
What is an autoimmune disease Disease caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced against substances naturally present in the body
What is chemotaxis Movement of a motile cell or organism in one direction corresponding to a gradient of increasing/decreasing concentration of a substance (chemical signal)
Fever is caused by Chemical mediators Macrophages
The extrinsic pathway is Tissue damage causes platelet aggregation and formation of prothrombin activator
What are immunogens? Antigens that can produce an immune response
What are histocompatibilty locus antigens (HLA)? Antigens that the body recognizes as self or foreign
What is a hemolytic reaction to blood? Occurs when a donor’s and recipient’s blood are not compatible
What can cause pruritis? Hb spills into circulatory system due to RBC breakdown Macrophages break down Hb
What is anemia? Inadequate amounts of RBCs or inadequate Hb within the RBCs
The most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is Blood loss from menstrual bleeding or intestinal bleeding.
What is hemolytic anemia Anemia caused by destruction of RBSs
What is the lifespan of a sickle cell? 10-20 days
What is polycythemia? Abnormally high hematocrit due to excessive production of RBCs Rare
What is leukemia? Cancer of hematopoietic cells, Cells proliferate initially in bone marrow and spread to peripheral blood
Multiple Myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of the bone marow
Thrombocytopenia is a low platelet count.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs when antibodies attack and destroy the body's platelets for unknown reasons
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) a life-threatening disease that occurs when a small blood clots form suddenly throughout the body.
Pain sudden in onset perforation of organs
Lying on side with legs flexed peritoneal inflammation
walking aroun relieves the pain obstructed gallbladder or kidney stones
localized tearing pain rupture of an organ
dull, steady increasing pain bowel obstruction
sharp flank pain kidney stones
You auscultate the abdomen before you... Palpate or percuss
Cullen's signs discoloration over umbilicus
Turner's sign discoloration over flanks
Mallory-Weiss Syndrome Mucosal tear of distal esophagus at point of attachment of esophagus to stomach due to violent vomiting or alcohol binges
Esophageal varices caused by portal hypertension which engorges veins in the esophagus
Cirrhosis Most common cause of portal hypertension
Esophageal varices S/S Painless bleeding, Hematemesis, Burnin or tearing sensation in chest, dysphagia
Acute gastroenteritis Inflammation of stomach/intestines, hemorrhage and erosion of mucosal layers
Peptic Ulcers Disease breakdown of gastric or duodenal mucosal defense caused by imbalance between production of acid or bacteria
Peptic Ucers Disease Epigastric pain or tenderness, located midline, sudden onset
Duodenal ulcers pain at night on an empty stomach
Gastric ulcers Stomach only,no consistent patter, pain after a mean or full stomach
Diverticulosis Most common cause of lower GI bleeding
Ulcerative Colitis an inflammatory condition of large intestine characterized by ulceration of mucosa of the intestine
Crohn's Disease a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that usually affects the ileum, the colon or both. It is autoimmune
Diverticulitis Inflammation of diverticula secondary to infection due to obstruction by fecal matter
Hemorrhoids Small masses of swollen veins that occur in the anus and rectum due to straining, constipation, etc.
Bowel obstruction Complete or partial blockage of bowels due to hernias, volvulus, intussusception. Most common location is small intestines
Appendicitis Inflammation of vermiform appendix due to obstruction of lumen by fecal matter
Cholecystitis Inflammation of gallbladder
Murphy's Sign Referred pain to right shoulder
Hepatitis Injury to liver cells typically due to inflammation or infection
Cirrhosis Chronic, irreversible, degenerative disease of liver
Prerenal Disease Occurs before the kidney is reached and characterized by inadequate blood flow to kidneys
Intrarenal disease (intrinsic disease) disease or damage within the kidney
Postrenal disease disease tha block the system that collects urine
Created by: smachuca87