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MedSurge-KIDNEY

MedSurge-KIDNEY INJURY/DISEASE review

QuestionAnswer
Prerenal, acute kidney injury(AKI) characteristics? ↓ cardiac output, initial cause of most acute renal failure, hypovolemia, renal vascular obstruction, anaphylaxis
Intrarenal, acute kidney injury(AKI) characteristics? tubular obstruction by myoglobin, nephrotic drugs, acute glomerulonephritis
Postrenal, acute kidney injury(AKI) characteristics? mechanical outflow obstruction, prostate cancer, renal stones, bladder cancer
Acute tubular necrosis results primarily from? renal ischemia and nephrotoxic injury & necrosis
Renal ischemia leads to acute tubular necrosis by disrupting the? basement membrane
AKI, staging acronym? RIFLE - Risk / Injury / Failure / Loss / End-Stage Kidney Disease
Reversal of oliguria occurs with fluid replacement in pt. with? prerenal oliguria
Urine in prerenal oliguria content? high specific gravity, low sodium concentration
Urine in intrarenal oliguria content? low specific gravity, low high concentration
Urine specific gravity consistently 1.010 and osmolality @ 300 mOsm/kg is about the same as ___ and indicates _____? plasma; tubules are damaged and unable to concentrate urine
Because the kidneys cannot synthesize ammonia needed to excrete H+, ____ ____ occurs. metabolic acidosis
Characteristics of acute renal failure include? urinary output of 3 - 5 L/day, ↓ Na+ / K+ levels, and fluid weight loss
S/S of AKI in the oliguric phase? muscle weakness and abdominal cramping due to hyperkalemia, urine output @ 300mL/day, peripheral edema
Cardiac conduction abnormalities in oliguric phase include peaked T waves, depressed ST segment, prolonged PR and QRS intervals
Most common cause of death in AKI is? infection
During catabolism of body protein serum urea? increases
Calcium-phosphorus imbalances in chronic kidney disease (CKD) results from? deficiency of active VitD and high phosphorus levels
Calcium-phosphorus imbalances can lead to? bone remodelling and weakened bone matrix
Aluminum accumulation is believed to contribute to? osteomalacia
Osteitis fibrosis involves? replacement of Ca in the bone with fibrous tissue, resulting from increased levels of parathyroid hormone from hypocalcemia
An appropriate snack for CKD? hard candy
The syndrome that includes all S/S seen in various body systems in CKD is? uremia
Azotemia is? an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels
Characteristics of hemodialysis? requires vascular access, lowers serum triglycerides, intensified anemia, repaid fluid and creatinine loss
Characteristics of peritoneal dialysis? increased hyperlipidemia, portable system, less cardio stress, more protein loss, fewer dietary restrictions
The dialysate for peritoneal dialysis contains? dextrose in a higher concentration than in blood
Phases of peritoneal dialysis? fill(inflow), dwell, drain
Temporary catheters vascular access site, characteristics? usually used for access for continuous renal replacement therapy, most prone to infection
Native AV fistula, characteristics? least likely to thrombose, 4 - 6 weeks healing time
Arteriovenous (AV) graft, characteristics? 2 - 4 weeks healing time, may lead to distal ischemia
Evaluation of patency of an AV graft is performed by? auscultating for the presence of bruits at the site
The most common indication for continuous renal replacement therapy is? fluid overload
A major contraindication to kidney transplant is? extensive vascular disease
Created by: fluency