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MedSurge-UROLOGIC

MedSurge-UROLOGIC / RENAL PROBLEMS - review

QuestionAnswer
Upper UTI, characteristic? Infection of kidney, kidney pelvis, or ureter
Lower UTI, characteristic? infection of bladder and/or urethra
Complicated UTI, characteristic? exists in presence of obstruction or stones
Uncomplicated UTI, characteristic? occurs in otherwise normal urinary tract
Recurrent UTI, characteristic? reinfection following successful treatment of prior UTI
Unresolved bacteriuria, characteristic? initially resistant to antibiotics
Bacterial persistence, characteristic? continuing infection because of development resistance
Clinical manifestations UTI? vague abdominal pain and disorientation
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, Bactrim) is used 3 days for treatment of? UTIs (urgency, frequency, dysuria)
Prevention and recurrence of UTI's can assisted with? drinking at least 2 quarts o water every day
Acute pyelonephritis is an exudative purulent localized inflammation of the renal pelvis
Acute pyelonephritis resulting from ascending infection from the lower urinary tract, occurs most often when? there is a preexisting abnormality of the urinary tract
Patient with acute pyelonephritis is more likely than pt. with lower UTI to have, nursing diagnosis of? hyperthermia related to infection
Chronic pyelonephritis causes progressive destruction of? nephrons, resulting in chronic renal insufficiency
Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis requires? urine culture and sensitivity tests
Following initial treatment of acute pyelonephritis, pt. must have a followup ? urine culture
The most common cause of urethritis in men is? sexually transmitted diseases
An assessment finding in interstitial cystitis is? pain with bladder filling that is transiently relieved by urination (urine is free of infectious agents)
Urinary retention (is / is not) common in interstitial cystitis? is not common
When caring for pt. with interstitial cystitis, nurse teaches pt. to? use dietary supplement Ca Glycerophosphate (Prelief) to ↓ bladder irritation
Voiding diaries (should / should not) be kept indefinitely in pts. with interstitial cystitis? should not
Glomerulonephritis is characterized by glomerular damage caused by? accumulation of immune complexes and complement in the glomeruli
Restriction of dietary protein may be indicated in management of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) when pt. has? elevated BUN
An elevated BUN indicates? the kidneys are not clearing nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and protein may be restricted until the kidney recovers
HTN is treated with? sodium and fluid restriction, diuretics, and anti-hypertensive drugs
The edema associated with nephrotic syndrome occurs as a result of? decreased plasma oncotic pressure
Calcium oxalate, association with urinary tract calculi? frequently obstruct the ureter, most common type of stone
Calcium phosphage, association with urinary tract calculi? often mixed with struvite and oxalate stones, associated with alkaline urine
Struvite, association with urinary tract calculi? always assoc. with UTI, often staghorn formation in kidney pelvis, more common in women
Uric acid, association with urinary tract calculi? associated with gout, high incidence in Jewish men
Cystine, association with urinary tract calculi? genetic autosomal recessive defect, defective GI and kidney absorption
Severe, colicky back pain radiating into the groin is a finding found in? renal calculus passing down the ureter
Stones obstructing a calyx or at the ureteropelvic junction may produce? dull costovetebral flank pain, and large bladder stones
Many pts. with renal stones (do / do not) have a history of chronic UTIs? do not
Prevention of calcium oxalate stones include dietary restriction of? spinach, cabbage, tomatoes
Lithotripsy is? a medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter
Postop lithotripsy pt. should be encouraged to? increase fluid intake
Anti-hypertensives can be used to treat? benign and accelerated nephrosclerosis
Self-catherization is performed every few days in pts. with? urethral strictures; to dilate the urethra
Adult-onset poycystic kidney disease is? an inherited autosomal-dominant disorder that manifests after the patient has children
Hereditary medullary cystic disease causes? poor concentration ability of the kidneys
Alport's syndrome is? a hereditary nephritis that is associated with deafness and deformities of the optic lens
Stress incontinence, characteristics? found following prostatectomy, treated with Kegel exercises, common in postmenopausal women involuntary urination with ↑ intraabdominal pressure
Urge incontinence, characteristics? caused by overactivity of detrusor muscle, involuntary urination w/minimal warning, bladder contracts by reflex, overriding central inhibition
Overflow incontinence, characteristics? caused by outlet obstruction, leakage of urine from overfull bladder
Reflex incontinence, characteristics? occurs with spinal cord lesions above S2, occurs without warning or stress during day or night
Functional incontinence, characteristics? loss of urine caused by problems of mobility,
Anticholinergic drugs, treat incontinence by? urge; relaxes bladder tone and ↑ sphincter tone, ↓ unwanted contractions
a-Adrenergic blockers, treat incontinence by? overflow; reduce sphincter resistance to urine flow
Exercise to assist with stress incontenence? pelvic floor muscle exercises 40 - 50 /day
After placement of a ureteral catheter, nurse should? measure ureteral nurinary drainage every 1 - 2 hours
Expected lung sounds following nephroectomy? lungs should be clear; decreased sounds/shallow respirations are abnormal and require intervention
Postop an ileal conduit, nurse should plan to? empty draining bag every 2 to 3 hours and measure urinary output
Created by: fluency