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Patho Chpt. 4

Altered Immunity

Immunity The process by which the body recognizes foreign substances and neutralizes them to prevent damage
Adaptive immune defense Specific: the immune cells seek out and destroy targeted foreign invaders. Memory: the immune cells produce substances that remember and more easily destroy return offenders.
Immunology The study of the structure and function of the immune system, phenomena of immunity, induced sensitivity, and allergy
Adaptive Immunity the response of the immune system
Antigen A substance that induces a state of sensitivity or immune response
Innate Immune Response A nonspecific response associated with inflammation (review chpt. 3)
Bone Marrow (Central Immune structure) Production of lymphocytes; Maturation of B lymphocytes
Thymus (Central Immune structure) Gland located in the mediastinum; Differentiation and maturation of lymphocytes
Lymph Nodes (Peripheral Immune Structure) Rounded mass of lymphatic tissue; Spread out along lymphatic vessels; Contain many lymphocytes, which filter the lymphatic fluid
Spleen (Peripheral Immune Structure) Organ that produces lymphocytes
Lymphoid mucosal tissue = tonsils, Peyer's patches, appendix (Peripheral Immune Structure) Site of lymphocyte aggregation
T lymphocytes (Primary Cellular Components) Matured in the thymus Essential in adaptive cell-mediated immunity Destruction of cellular antigens Promote antibody production by B lymphocytes Account for 60% of blood lymphocytes
B Lymphocyte Matured in bone marrow Essential in mediating adaptive humoral immunity Production of antibodies/immunoglobins Accounts for 10-20% of blood lymphcytes
Cytotoxic T lymphcytes Direct destruction of antigen carrying cells
Helper T lymphocytes Enhance humoral and cell-mediated responses of the immune system
Suppressor T Lymphcytes Inhibit humoral and cell- mediated responses
T-Cell Receptor (TCR) Promote a specific immune response by binding to antigens
B-Cell Receptor Recptor bound to cell membranes of the B Cel; association with antigen activates plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies
Immunoglobulins A group of structurally related proteins important in immune function; composed of a variable region promoting antigen specificity and a constant region
Natural Killer Cells Large, granular lymphocytes; non specific cytotoxic cells Circulate until they contact cells that are considered threatening (cancer cells or infected cells) then they attack
IgA 15% of total Immunoglobulins. Concentrated in bodily secretions such as breast milk, tears, and saliva. Protection of mucous membrane lined structures.
IgG 75% of immunoglobulin make up. Most common circulating antibody. Produced in primary and secondary immune responses. Activates complement. Antibody activity against toxins, viruses, and bacteria. Passive Immunity in newborns via placental transfer.
IgM 10% of total Immunoglobulin First immunoglobulin to proliferate in immune response. Bound to B lymphocytes. Activates complement.
IgD Bound to and activated B cells. 0.2% of total immunoglobulin.
IgE Bound to Mast cells in skin and mucous membranes. Stimulates mast cell release of histamine in allergic immune response, leading to inflammation.
Granulocytes aka Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. Produced by Myeloid Progenitor Cell
Created by: xmiller