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Law 12: Ch 7

Chapter 7: Investigation and Arrest

crime scene the site where the offence took place
centre the are in which the offence was actually committed
perimeter the areas surrounding the centre, where the offender may have been present or may have left evidence
contamination the loss, destruction, or alteration of physical evidence
police log a written record of what an officer witnessed
physical evidence any object, impression, or body element that can be used to prove or disprove facts relating to an offence
forensic evidence the use of biochemical and other scientific techniques to analyze evidence in a criminal investigation
impression patterns or marks found on surfaces and caused by various objects
class characteristics the general attributes of an object
individual characteristics the specific and unique features of an object
fingerprint a mark left behind after a fingertip touches an object
visible fingerprint the print formed when a fingertip is coated in blood, grease, or some other substance; it is visible to the naked eye
latent fingerprint the print formed by natural oils, and perspiration on the fingertip, it is invisible to the naked eye
chain of custody the witnessed, written record of the people who maintained unbroken control over an item of evidence
arrest legally depriving someone of liberty by seizing or touching the person to indicate that he or she is in custody
detention legally depriving a person of liberty for the purpose of asking questions, with or without physical restraint
reasonable grounds information that would lead a reasonable person to conclude that the suspect had committed a criminal offence
appearance notice a legal document, usually issued for less serious offences, compelling an accused person to appear in court
bench warrant an arrest warrant issued directly by the Judge when an accused person fails to appear in court
summons a legal document issued for an indictable offence, ordering an accused person to appear in court
information a statement given under oath, informing the Court of the details of the offence
arrest warrant a written court order, directing the arrest of the subject
peace officer a person responsible for preserving the public peace, such as a police officer, a mayor, or a customs officer
citizen's arrest an arrest without a warrant by any person other than a peace officer
search warrant a court document that gives the police the right to search a specific location
telewarrant a search warrant obtained by phone or fax
lineup a grouping of photographs or people shown to a victim or a witness for the purpose of identifying the perpetrator
promise to appear a signed agreement that an accused person will appear in court at the time of the trial
recognizance a guarantee that the accused will appear in court when required, under penalty of a fine up to $500
surety a person who agrees to make a payment if the accused does not appear at trial
bail the temporary release of an accused who posts money or some other security
show-cause hearing a judicial hearing in which the Crown or the accused has to convince the Judge either to detain or release the accused before trial
reverse onus the burden of proof shifts to the defence
Created by: slslozzy