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Lecture 3

Marine Viruses, Archaea, Bacteria

QuestionAnswer
"agents of microbial mortality" thus play a role in cycling of organic matter in the oceans marine viruses
how abundant are marine viruses? about 10^8 per milliliter in productive coastal waters
where are marine viruses most abundant? very abundant in marine nearshore surface sediments
"non-cellular infectious agent" virus
what are proteins made of? genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat
can viruses reproduce by itself? no; its genetic material must enter a host cell, then "directs the host cell's biosynthetic machinery into making many new viruses
are viruses diverse? diverse; viruses affect organisms f all kingdoms
5 basic steps in the multiplication of viruses 1. attachment 2. penetration 3. replication and synthesis 4. assembly 5. release ("lytic" vs "lysogenic")
what do oceanographers want to know about viruses? rates of virus-mediated mortality and associated production of DOM
what is tricky about inferring rates from counts of infected cells? it requires knowing how long the cells are infected before lysis
how much marine bacteria of viruses kill per day? 20-40%, may contribute to microbial mortality on scales similar to grazing by zooplankton
conversion of POC (cells) to DOC may influence removal of what from the surface ocean? C
bottom line of viruses just because they're small, we can't ignore them!
creator of phylogenetic tree of life woese
"heat lovers" thermophiles
nearly all thermophiles are strict _____ that need sulfur as an electron donor or acceptor (common around hydrothermal vents) anaerobes
methane makers methanogens
salt lovers halophiles
marine archaea are widespread and numerically significant in what kind of waters? cold, oxic
water below EZ to about 1000 meters mesopelagic
what comprises 40% of the mesopelagic microbial community? crenarchaeota
crenarchaeotes are chemo/auto/heterotrophic chemoautotrophic
marine bacteria maybe (what two?) chemo/auto/heterotrophic heterotrophic or autotrophic
____ vary: phototrophic or chemotrophic metabolic modes
organotrophs requre inorganic/organic compounds for biosynthesis organic (used dissolved organic matter, DO, DON, DOP)
what is about 25% of pelagic bacteria? SAR(sargasso sea)11 (next common is roseobacter)
bacterial production is usually determined by measuring what? the uptake of radio-labeled substrates and incorporation into cellular products
H-thymidine into... DNA
H-leucine into... protein
not all marin bacteria are heterotrophs...some are autotrophs (photosynthetic)
which of the five bacterial groups carry out oxygenic photosynthesis? cyanobacteria
four of the five bacterial groups engage in what type of photosynthesis? anoxygenic (uses molecules other than water) without the production of O_2
what are photosynthetic pigments that occur in various bacteria? bacteriochlorophylls
bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis but do not produce what element? oxygen
Created by: rachelaurenk