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Basic Fish Morphology

Defining Characteristics of Fish fins gills aquatic lifestyle poikilothermic
Types of Scales cycloid, ctenoid, ganoid
Types of Dentition Maxillary Premaxillary Vomerine Palatine Pterygoid
Types of Fins Dorsal Caudal Pelvic Anal Pectoral
Spines VS Soft Fins Soft Fins : segmentation, usually branching Sometime beginning of soft ray doesn't branch Spines: usually at anterior part of fin, hard, nonsegmented, nonbranching
Diversity of Body Shape Fusiform Compression Depression Compressiform Depressiform Rover- predators Lie-in wait predator surface oriented bottom rover bottom clinger flatfish deep-bodied eel-like fukufirn similar to eels but high compressed sagittiform globiform
cycloid scales
ctenoid scales
ganoid scales
Maxillary Teeth
Premaxillary Teeth
Vomerine Teeth
Palatine Teeth
Pterygoid Teeth
Dorsal Fin
Caudal Fin
Pelvic Fin
Anal Fin
Pectoral Fin
Fusiform elongate and only slightly compressed example- Scombridae (tunas)
Compression flattened on left and right Example: Selene vomer (lookdown)
Depression flattened on top and bottom Example: Gymnura micrura (smooth butterfly ray)
Compressiform Laterally compressed Ex. Centrarchidae (sunfishes)
Depressiform Dorsally compressed Ex. Rajidae (Skates)
Rover- predators Examples: Salmonidae (salmon) Scombridae (tunas and mackerals)
Lie-in wait predator Example: Esocidae (pikes)
surface oriented horizontal profile, upturned mouth Example: Poeciliidae (live bearers)
bottom rover Example: Ariidae (saltwater catfish)
bottom clinger have modified pelvice fins to form suction disk Example: Gobiidae (gobies)
flatfish Compressiform; bc technically laying on their side Example: Order Pleuronectiformes (flat fishes clade)
deep-bodied similar to compressiform- almost the same Example: Carangidae (pompano and jacks)
eel-like Example: Anguillidae (freshwater eels)
filiform Example: Nemichthyidae (snipe eels)
Taeniform similar to eels but high compressed similar to eels but high compressed Example: Pholidae (gunnels)
sagittiform arrowlike, lie and wait Example: Esocidae (pikes)
globiform Example Cyclopteridae (lumpsuckers)
Rattails bulbous head tapering to a point Example: Macrouridae (rattails)
Created by: jcaughron