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ANP1050 CH25

QuestionAnswer
Name the 5 stages of digestion. 1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Compaction 5. Defecation
Define: Ingestion Selective intake of food
Define: Digestion mechanical & chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body
Define: Absorption uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract & then into the blood & lymph
Define: Compaction absorbing water & consolidation the indigestible residue into feces
Define: Defecation elimination of feces
What is peristalsis? propelling of contents through the digestive tract by smooth muscle
What organs make up the alimentary canal? - Mouth - Pharynx - Esophagus - Stomach - Small Intestine - Large Intestine (Colon) - Anal Canal
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system? - Salivary glands - Teeth - Tongue - Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas
What is the function of the salivary glands? Secretes saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates.
What is the function of the liver? Produces bile which emulsifies fat.
What is the function of the gallbladder? Stores bile and introduces it into the small intestine.
What is the function of the pancreas? Produces & secretes pancreatic juices which contain digestive enzymes & bicarbonate ions into the small intestines.
What is the function of the mouth? Response for the mechanical breakdown of food; begins with chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
What is the function of the pharynx? Connects the mouth to the esophagus.
What is the function of the esophagus? Peristalsis pushes food to the stomach.
What is the function of the stomach? Secretes acid & enzymes that mix with food to begin digestion.
What is the function of the small intestine? Mixes food w/ bile & pancreatic juices. Location of final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules. Main site of nutrient absorption.
What is the function of the large intestine? Absorbs water & electrolytes to form feces.
What is the function of the rectum? Regulates the elimination of feces.
Name the tissue layers from inner to outer surface & their function. - Mucosa (ridges for absorbing food) - Submucosa (blood vessels, lymphatic vessels) - Muscularis externa (2 muscles layers to propel food) - Serosa (fibrous, connective tissue)
Define: Mesentery Membrane which holds the organ in place withing the cavity, blood vessels & nerves run through it.
What is the difference between the lesser and greater omentum? Lesser = anterior serous membrane that attaches the stomach and liver. Greater = anterior serous membrane that hangs in front of the intestines and covers the small intestine like an apron
What is the peritoneum? Membrane that covers the abdominal wall (parietal) & organs (visceral).
How many of each type of tooth is there & what is the function of each: Incisors Cuspids Molars 8 Incisors - Bite off large pieces 4 Cuspids - Grasp & tear 8 Molars - Grind
What is the 2 main areas of the tooth? Root & crown
What attaches the tooth to the periodontal ligament? Cementum
What is the function of the periodontal ligament? Anchors tooth in jaw
What is the function of saliva? Moistens & cleanses the mouth, inhibits bacteria growth, dissolves molecules so they can stimulate the taste buds, digests starch & fat, and makes swallowing easier by binding the food particles into a soft mass (bolus) & lubricate it with mucus.
What type of solution is saliva and what solutes are found in it? Hypotonic (pH 6.8-7.0) & contains mucus, electrolytes, lysozymes (enzyme that kills bacteria), immunoglobulin A (IgA) (an antibacterial antibody), salivary amylase (enzyme that begins starch digestion in the mouth), lingual lipase (enzyme that begins fat)
What does the parotid salivary glands secrete? Clear, watery serous fluid that is rich in amylase.
What does the sublingual salivary glands secrete? Primarily viscous mucus
What does the submandibular salivary glands secrete? Primarily serous fluid w/ some mucus.
Created by: shaston001