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NU 624

Exam 2 - Acids and Bases

Give 3 examples of acidic foods. Oranges, lemons, vinegar
What strong acid is present in automobile batteries? Sulfuric acid
What base is commonly used as a household cleaner? Ammonia
Name a chemically basic medication used for heartburn. Antacids
Antacids are chemically __________ and used to treat _________. basic, heartburn
What does the Bronsted-Lowry definition state about acids and bases? Acids donate protons, bases accept protons
How is acidic strength determined? The extent of dissociation of a base or acid in an aqueous solution
Give an example of a strong acid and why it is considered to be "strong". Hydrochloric acid because it almost completely dissolves into hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl-) ions in water
What ion concentration determines the acidity of a solution? Hydrogen ions
The ___________ defines the acidity of a solution while the measurement of acidity is performed by using a _____________. hydrogen ion concentration, pH electrode
What is the equation for calculating pH? -log[H+]
Strong acids have a (high/low) concentration of hydrogen ions in water. High
Weak acids have a (high/low) concentration of hydrogen ions in water. Low
Name 4 strong acids. Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric
Give 1 example of a weak acid. Acetic acid (vinegar)
Vinegar, a weak acid, is chemically written as _____________. CH3COOH
Hydroxide ions are produced when an (acid/base) is placed in water. Base
Many bases exist as _____________. Metallic hydroxides
Identify 4 different metallic hydroxides. KOH, NaOH, Mg(OH)2, Ca(OH)2
Give examples of 4 strong bases seen in clinical practice. All hydroxides --> Lithium, sodium, barium, potassium
What metallic hydroxide is used in the treatment of manic depression? Lithium hyroxide
What metallic hydroxide is used in carbon dioxide absorbers? Barium hydroxide
What are the 7 acids produced by the body? Ketoacid, uric, hydrochloric, lactic, carbonic, pyruvic, proteins
What are the 4 bases produced by the body? Phosphate, bicarbonate, ammonia, proteins
The numerical pH of a solution and the amount of hydrogen ions is (directly/inversely) related. Inversely
What is physiologic pH and what is the goal pH for patients? 7.4, goal between 7.35-7.45
What is the definition of a buffer? A solution whose pH changes very little when exposed to small amounts of acids or bases
What purpose do blood buffers have in the body? Maintain blood pH within a range as close to physiologic pH as possible
What are the three buffer systems of the body? Carbonate, phosphate, proteins
What component in blood serves as a protein buffer? albumin
What is the chemical that serves as a buffer in renal tubules? Ammonia
Ammonia is a blood buffer that is produced in what part of the kidneys? Renal tubules
Created by: philip.truong