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Microbiology chpt.14

Microbiology Quiz Review

Pathogenicity the ability to cause disease
Pathogenesis refers to the steps or mechanisms involved in the development of a disease
infectious disease disease caused by a microbe, and the microbes that cause infectious diseases are collectively referred to as pathogens
Infection commonly used as a synonym for infectious disease
infection mean colonization by a pathogen;
Infection occurs when pathogen enter and multiply in body tissues.
All infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms or their products
Incubation period when pathogen first enters the body & begins to multiply until symptoms first appear
Prodromal period brief period of early, general/vague symptoms
Period of illness patient experiences specific signs & symptoms associated with particular disease; peak pathogenic activity
Convalescent period patient recovers
What are the 4 periods in the course of an infectious disease? 1.Incubation period 2.Prodromal period 3.Period of illness 4.Convalescent period
Localized Infections Once an infectious process is initiated, the disease may remain localized or it may spread
Systemic Infections When the infection spreads throughout the body it is said to have become a systemic or generalized infection;
acute disease one that has a rapid/sudden onset, and is usually followed by a relatively rapid recovery
chronic disease insidious (slow) onset and lasts a long time
subacute disease one that comes on more suddenly than a chronic disease, but less suddenly than an acute disease
symptom disease is defined as some evidence of a disease that is sensed by the patient
symptomatic disease/clinical disease the patient is experiencing symptoms
asymptomatic disease/subclinical disease the patient is not experiencing any symptoms
sign disease is defined as some type of objective measurable evidence of a disease evaluated by an observer
Latent infections infectious diseases that go from being symptomatic to asymptomatic, and then, later, go back to being symptomatic
primary infection One infectious disease may commonly follow another and the first disease is called primary infection
secondary infection One infectious disease may commonly follow another and the second disease is called secondary infection.
what are the steps in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases? 1.Entry of the pathogen into the body 2.Attachment of the pathogen to some tissue within the body 3.Multiplication of the pathogen 4.Invasion or spread of the pathogen 5.Evasion of host defenses 6.Damage to host tissue
virulen something that can cause massive destruction
Facultative intracellular pathogens are capable of both an intracellular and extracellular existence.
Virulence factors are attributes that enable pathogens to attach, escape destruction, and cause disease.
Adhesins special molecules on the surface of pathogens and are considered to be virulence factors because they enable pathogens to recognize and bind to particular host cell receptors.
Pili considered to be virulence factors because they enable bacteria to attach to surfaces, such as tissues within the human body
Intraleukocytic pathogens live within white blood cells
examples of intraerythrocytic pathogens and that live within red blood cells. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia spp
Capsules are virulence factors because of its antiphagocytic function
Flagella virulence factors because they enable flagellated bacteria to invade aqueous areas of the body; may also help the bacterium to escape phagocytosis.
Endotoxins Part of the cell wall structure of Gram-negative bacteria and Can cause serious, adverse physiologic effects such as fever and shock
Exotoxins Poisonous proteins secreted by a variety of pathogens
Created by: stephaniexdawnx3