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Microbiology ch.8&16

Microbiology Quiz Chapters 8 and 16

QuestionAnswer
hypertonic solution is a solution having a greater osmotic pressure than cells placed into that solution; a higher concentration of solutes exists outside the cells.
Explain what happens in plasmolysis cell shrinkage as a result of a loss of water from the cell’s cytoplasm
hypotonic solution having a lower osmotic pressure than cells placed into that solution; a lower concentration of solutes exists outside the cell
Explain what happens in plasmoptysis? pressure becomes so great that the cell ruptures, the escape of cytoplasm from the cells
isotonic solution A solution having the same osmotic pressure as cells placed into that solution; when the concentration of solutes outside the cell equals the concentration of solutes inside the cell
Sterilization is the destruction or elimination of all microbes, including cells, spores and viruses in or on something
How is sterilization achieved? Sterilization of objects can be accomplished by physical or chemical methods. Dry heat, autoclaving, ethylene oxide gas, various chemicals, and in some situations certain types of radiation light and gamma rays are used.
Sterile free of all living microorganism, including spores.
Disinfection is the process of destroying pathogens and their toxins. Objects are usually are disinfected by liquid or wet pasteurization
Disinfectant is a chemical agent used to destroy pathogens or inhibit their growth and vital activity, usually refers to a chemical agent used on nonliving materials
Pasteurization a heating process that kills pathogens in milk, wines, and other beverages
Antisepsis the prevention of infection by inhibiting the growth of pathogens.
Antiseptics an agent or substance capable of effecting antisepsis; usually refers to a chemical disinfectant that is safe to use on skin and other living tissues.
Autoclave an apparatus used for sterilization by steam under pressure
Bactericidal Agents a chemical agent or drug that kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic Agents chemical agent or drug that inhibits that growth of bacteria
Chemical Disinfection few disinfectants will kill bacterial spores with prolonged exposures times.
Medical Asepsis is the absence of pathogens in a patient’s environment
Surgical Asepsis is the absence of microorganisms in a surgical environment.
Acquired Immunity is the immunity or resistance acquired at some point in an individual’s lifetime.
Active Acquired Immunity is the immunity or resistance acquired as a result of the active production of antibodies
Natural Active Acquired Immunity active acquired immunity that is acquired naturally
Artifical Active Acquired Immunity active acquired immunity that is induced artificially.
Passive Acquired Immunity an immunity or resistance acquired as a result of antibodies produced by another person or by an animal
Natural Passive Acquired Immunity acquired in a natural manner.
Artifical Passive Acquired Immunity is induced artificially
Example of Active Acquired Immunity If the antibodies are actually produced within the person’s body this is called active acquired immunity.
Example of Natural Active Acquired Immunity People who have had a specific infection usually have developed some resistance to reinfection by the causative pathogen because of the presence of antibodies and stimulate lymphocytes.
Example of Artifical Active Acquired Immunity This type of immunity results when a person receives a vaccine.
Example of Passive Acquired Immunity when the person receives antibodies that were produced by another person or by more than one person or animals.
Example of Natural Passive Acquired Immunity a fetus receiving maternal antibodies in utero and an infant receiving maternal antibodies in colostrum.
Example of Artifical Passive Acquired Immunity receiving a shot of gamma globulin.
Created by: stephaniexdawnx3