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Microbiology chpt .9


Chemotherapeutic Agent any drug used to treat any condition or disease
Antimicrobial Agent any chemical (drug) used to treat an infectious disease, either by inhibiting or killing pathogens in vivo.
Antibacterial Agent those used to treat fungal diseases
Antifungal Agents those used to treat protozoal diseases
Antiprotozoal Agents those used to treat viral diseases
Antiviral Agents drugs that are used to treat viral diseases
Antibiotic substance naturally produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits growth of other microorganisms
Semisynthetic Antibiotics antibodies that have been chemically modified to kill a wider variety of pathogens or reduce side effects
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin
The ideal antimicrobial agent should have: (part 1) -Kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens -Cause no damage to the host -Cause no allergic reaction in the host
The ideal antimicrobial agent should have: (part 2) -Be stable when stored in solid or liquid form -Remain active in specific tissues in the body long enough to be effective -Kill the pathogens before they mutate and become resistant to it
What are the 5 most common mechanisms of action of antimicrobial? 1.Inhibition of cell wall synthesis 2.Damage to cell membranes 3.Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis 4.Inhibition of protein synthesis 5.Inhibition of enzyme activity
Bacteriostatic Drugs inhibit growth bacteria
Bactericidal Drugs kill bacteria
Sulfonamide drugs inhibit production of folic acid
narrow-spectrum antibiotics antibiotics that kill either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria
broad-spectrum antibiotics Antibiotics that are destructive to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
Multidrug therapy Sometimes one drug is not sufficient; 2 or more drugs may be used simultaneously,
Synergism when 2 antimicrobial agents are used together to produce a degree of pathogen killing that is greater than that achieved by either drug alone
Antagonism when 2 drugs actually work against each other. The extent of pathogen killing is less than that achieved by either drug alone.
What are the 3 ways antifungal agents work? 1.By binding with the cell membrane 2.By interfering with sterol synthesis 3.By blocking mitosis or nucleic acid synthesis
Antiprotozoal agents are usual toxic to the ___? host
How do antiprotozoal agents work? -Interfering with DNA and RNA synthesis. -Interfering with protozoal metabolism.
____ agents are the newest weapons in antimicrobial methodology. Antiviral
Superbugs microbes (mainly bacteria) that have become resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent
intrinsic resistance Some bacteria are naturally resistant because they lack the specific target site for the drug or the drug is unable to cross the organism’s cell wall or cell membrane and thus, cannot reach its site of action
acquired resistance If bacteria that were once susceptible to a particular drug become resistant
efore a drug enters a bacterial cell it must first bind to proteins on the surface of the cell; these proteins are called drug-binding sites
To enter a bacterial cell, a drug must be able to pass through the cell wall and cell membrane; bacterial chromosomal mutations may alter the structure and permeability of the cell membrane, thus preventing the drug from entering the cell;this results in drug resistance
resistance factor A plasmid that contains multiple genes for drug resistance is known as a
Empiric therapy is when drug therapy is initiated before laboratory results are available
selecting for resistant organisms Organisms susceptible to the agent will die, but resistant ones will survive
With prolonged use, a broad-spectrum antibiotic may destroy the normal flora, resulting in an overgrowth of bacteria known as a superinfection
Chemotherapy the use of any chemical (drug) to treat any disease or condition.
Created by: stephaniexdawnx3