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Respiratory

phase 2 test 4 'respiratory'

QuestionAnswer
External Respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lung and environment
Internal Respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at cellular level
Upper Respiratory Tract nose pharynx bronchial tree
Parts of Nose conchae paranasal sinuses smell receptors nasolacrimal ducts
Parts of Pharynx nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx eustachian tubes
Parts of Bronchial Tree left and right bronchus bronchioles alveolar ducts alveoli
Describe Lungs large, paired spongy cone shaped organs right lung has 3 lobes & left 2 oxygenated blood returns to heart via pulmonary veins visceral pleura parietal pleur
Gas exchange occurs via ______ diffusion
Describe Visceral Pleura thin, moist serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung
Parietal Pleura thin, moist serous membrane that covers the thoracic cavity
Pleural Cavity airtight vacuum that contains negative pressure that helps keep the lungs inflated
Describe Respiratory Movements and Ranges rhythmic movements of chest walls, ribs, and muscles allow air to be inhaled and exhaled
Regulation of Respiration nervous control-medulla oblongata and pons of the brain; chemoreceptors-in the carotid and aorta
Reasons to Perform Extensive Respiratory Assessment chronic respiratory or cardiac conditions history of respiratory impairment related to trauma recent surgery or anesthesia
Chest Radiographs (Roentgenogram) visualize lungs and major thoracic vessels view alter. in size & locat. of pulmonary structures ID lesions, infiltration, foreign bodies, or fluid shows disorder involving parenchyma or interstitial spaces pneumothorax, pneumonia, pleural effusion, ed
CT scans lungs requires pt teaching to decrease anxiety can be viewed diagonal or cross-sectional
PFT performed to assess large & small airways obtain info. on lung volume, ventilation, pulmonary spirometry, gas exchange
Mediastinoscopy surgical endoscopic procedure to obtain lymph nodes for biopsy for tumor diagnosis performed under general anesthesia
Laryngoscopy allows for direct or indirect visualization of larynx requires local or general anesthesia
Bronchoscopy examination of tracheobronchial tree for abnormalities, tissue biopsy, secretions for cytological or bacteriological studies patient treated as surgical pt
Nursing Interventions for a Bronchoscopy informed consent NPO until gag reflex returns places in semi-fowlers and turned to one side monitored for S&S of laryngeal edema or spasms monitor sputum for signs of hemorrhage if biopsy taken
Sputum Specimen obtained for microscopic evaluation
Cytology Studies performed on sputum or pleural fluid to detect the presence of abnormal or malignant cells
Thoracentesis surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with needle for aspiration of fluid
Nursing Interventions for Thoracentesis explain procedure and obtain informed consent performed at bedside, sitting upright, & leaning over a bedside table or on side with affected side up
Normal ABGs pH 7.35-7.45 PaCO2 35-45 mmHg PaO2 80-100 mmHg HCO3 22-28 mEq/L SaO2 >95%
Oxygenation carried in bloodstream in 2 forms - dissolved in plasma (Pa02), combined with hemoglobin (SaO2)
Ventilation respiratory component of acid-base balance relationship between pH & PaCO2 HCO3 measure of metabolic component of acid-base kidneys respond to alterations in pH
Pulse Oximetry Monitoring noninvasive method for continuous monitoring of SaO2
SaO2 Needed to Adequately Replenish O2 in Plasma 90-100%
SaO2 Below ____ Life Threatening 70%
Adventitious abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds
Atelectasis collapse of lung tissues, preventing respiratory exchange of O2 & CO2
Bronchoscopes used to examine larynx, trachea, bronchi
Coryza acute inflammation of mucus membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses
Crackles short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling breath sounds heard on auscultation
Cyanosis slightly bluish, gray, slatelike, or dark purple discolaration of skin
Dyspnea shortness of breath, difficulty breathing
Embolism
Created by: ealongo