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CH 11 personality notes

Personality: An individual’s unique patterns of thoughts, feelings, & behaviors that persist over time & across situations. It’s stable & enduring.
Psychodynamic Theory: Personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological factors that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness.
Psychodynamics: study of psychic energy & how it’s transformed/expressed into behavior.
step 1/5 of psychodynamics Much of mental life is unconscious result, people may behave in ways that they don’t understand
step 2/5 of psychodynamics Mental processes such as emotions, motivations, & thoughts operate in parallel, which may lead to conflicting feelings.
step 3/5 of psychodynamics Early experiences strongly affect personality development.
step 4/5 of psychodynamics Our mental representation of ourselves, others, & our relationships tend to guide our interactions w/other people.
step 5/5 of psychodynamics: 5.The development of personality involves learning to regulate sexual & aggressive feelings as well as becoming socially independent rather than dependent.
Sigmund Freud: very influential psychodynamic theorist.
Unconscious: all ideas, thoughts, & feelings of which we are not & normally can’t be aware of.
psychoanalysis: Freud’s ideas from the basis of this. Which is his theory of personality &to the form of therapy that he invented.
3 types of unconscious instincts/drives: •Some instincts are aggressive/destructive •Hunger, thirst, & self-preservation are necessary to the survival of the individual • Desire for pleasure, Freud believed is the most critical factor in the development of personality
ID: : “The devil”, wish fulfillment, immediate gratification, works w/pleasure principle(PP), PP uses dreams/fantasies, reflexes such as coughing(relieves unpleasant situation at once) also satisfy the ID
more on the ID . It’s collection of unconscious desires that continually seek expression. Only structure present at birth.
Wish Fulfillment: person forms a mental image of an object/situation that partly satisfies the instinct & relieves the uncomfortable feeling.
Pleasure principle: Tries to obtain immediate pleasure/&to avoid pain. As soon as an instinct arises, the ID tries to obtain it.
Ego: “My head” develops from the ID, self, reality principle, it mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (super ego), & instinctual needs (ID)
more on the EGO: often used as a synonym for “self” It operates partly preconsciously, partly unconsciously, & consciously. “Preconscious” material not currently in awareness, but can easily be recalled. Ego operates on Reality Principle.
Reality Principle: The way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely & effectively in the real world. Ex: If I’m thirsty my ego will attempt to get something to quench my thirst effectively & safely.
SuperEgo: “the angel”, moral watch dog, the social & parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience & the ego ideal. It’s not present at birth, not till adulthood.
more on the SuperEgo: It punishes the Ego for guilt Creating the conscience, rewards the Ego for pride creating the Ego Ideal.
EgoIdeal: Part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be.
Defense Mechanism: Self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety & guilt including denial, repression, protection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction, formation, displacement, & sublimation.
Defensive Coping: Ways people convince themselves that they’re not really threatened (DM).
Denial: Refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality, ex: parents won’t face the fact that their child is taking drugs, it can perpetuate the problem.
Parallel Processing: can cause conflicts (psychodynamic theory). Dreams, day dreams, & fantasies (mental representations)
3 levels of the mind: conscious, unconscious, pre conscious (muscle memory)
Repression: Excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, & desires from consciousness. Denial & repression are the most basic defense mechanisms.
Projection: attributing one’s own repressed motives, wishes, thoughts/feelings onto another. For ex: criticizing another for not being a team player, when you are not a team player.(Defensive Mechanism)
Identification: taking on characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent. (DM)For ex: father lives vicariously through his son, like when son get a doctorate, parents are very proud.
Stockholm Syndrome part of (Identifcation) victims sometimes seek to please their captors & may identify w/them as a way of defensively coping w/unbearable & inescapable stress.Defensive Mechanism
Regression: reverting back to childlike behavior & defenses. Ex: adults may cry or throw temper tantrums when their arguments fail & expect those around them to react sympathetically as their parents did when they were children.
Example of Regression: Ex: coco chewing on her fingernails when nervous, or crying when getting pulled over by the Police to avoid getting a ticket. Defensive Mechanism
Intellectualization: Subtle form of denial. Thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them. Ex: instead of getting emotional about their dying father, mcnitts’ brother got stats on how sharks don’t get cancer. Defensive mechanism
Reaction Formation: : behavioral form of denial, constantly praising another when jealous of exaggerated ideas & emotions that are the opposite of one’s repressed beliefs or feelings. It’s a way of unconsciously convincing oneself that one’s motives are pure. DM
Displacement: : Shifting repressed motives & emotions from an original object to a substitute object. Ex: a woman who has always wanted to be a mother and knows she can’t have kids, will have a very strong attachment to a niece or pet.
More on Displacement: , or kicking the dog after a hard day at work…in the end you know the dog will be there the next day.
Sublimation: Redirecting repressed motives & feelings into more socially acceptable channels. It’s not necessary but desirable. Aggression in to competition in sports
Freud on Sublimation: believed it was necessary, & desirable to sublimate sexual drives into more acceptable forms= energy given to other endeavors.
Libido: : According to Freud; the energy generated by the sexual instinct. First 18 months of life the dominant source of pleasure is the mouth, at 18 months it goes to the anus, age 3 shifts to the genitals.
Fixation: According to Freud; it’s a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual’s psychosexual development.
Psychosexual Stage: oral, anal, & phallic stage
Oral stage: birth to 18 months, infants depend completely or other people to satisfy their needs, experience pleasure by sucking & swallowing.
More on the Oral Stage: •When teeth come in, pleasure = chewing & biting. •Too much oral gratification= kids grew up gullible, optimistic, dependent adults, •those who receive too little may turn in to pessimistic, sarcastic, argumentative, & hostile people later in life.
Anal Stage: 1.5 -3.5 years, erotic feelings center on the anus/elimination. • Parents who teach potty training to strictly kids throw temper tantrums & may live in self destruction when an adult. • Parents who teach lazily, child becomes stingy and every orderly.
Phallic Stage: : 3-6, feelings center on the genitals, child becomes attached to parent of opp sex, While becoming jealous of same sex parent.
Oedipus Complex: Emotions & ideas, that the mind unconsciously concentrates on a child’s desire to sexually possess his/her mother, and to kill his/her father. character in greek mythology kills his father and marries his mom.
Electra Complex: For a girl, it Involves possessive love for their father/jealousy toward their mom, and vice versa.
Oedipus & Electra Complexes occur: both occur in the Phallic Stage
Fixation at Phallic Stage: : Leads to men boasting of their sexual prowess/ treating women w/contempt & woman becoming flirtatious & promiscuous. It may prompt feelings of low self-esteem, shyness, & worthlessness.
Latency Period: starts at age 5/6 lasts until age 12 or 13. Boys play w/boys, girls play w/girls. Neither sex takes much interest in the other.
Genital Stage: Final stage of normal adult sexual dev., which is usually marked by mature sexuality. Happens at puberty. Sexual impulses are reawakened (conscious)
Carl Jung: associate of Freud; he accepted Freud’s stress on unconscious motivation but expanded the scope of the unconscious well beyond the selfish satisfacts of the ID.
more on Carl Jung: •He thought the libido or psychic energy represents all life forces not just the sexual ones. • Freud & Jung emphasized the role of the unconscious in determining human behavior.
even more on Carl Jung: •Jung saw the unconscious as the Ego’s source of strength & vitality. • He believed the unconscious consists of the personal unconscious & the collective unconscious.
Alfred Adler: associate of Freud; he thought that humans have positive/conscious goals that guide their behavior. Behavior is consistently directed toward 1 goal; SUPERIORITY •Gives meaning & coherence to existence
More on Alfred Adler: •Inferiority complex- fixation on feeling inferiority that results in emotional & social paralysis Develops from belief that we can’t attain superiority Compensate
even more on Alfred Adler: •He disagreed w/Freud’s concept of the conflict between selfish ID & the morality based SuperEgo. • He thought people posses innate positive motives & strive for personal & social perfection.
CONT info on Alfred Adler: •He is the father of humanistic psychology •Compensation-persons effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses
Differences of Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud: Adler possess innate positive motives & strives toward social perfection(superiority). He has control over personal behavior, Freud has little control. Freud is motivated by sex & aggression (negative, unconscious)
Neo-Freudians: Karen Horney & Erick Erickson focused more on the influence of social interaction on personality. They put greater emphasis on the ego & its attempts to gain mastery over the world.
Karen Horney: psychodynamic personality theorist, she thought that environmental & social facts are the most important influences in shaping personality
Karen CONT: •& among these, the most pivotal are the human relationships we experience as children. • ANXIETY is what she’s is known for, • Basic anxiety is pivotal in shaping personality •Environment & social factors must influence personality
KH CONT again: •We feel happiness in a world we perceive as hostile; insecure •We desire affection & security •Protection from basic anxiety * Affection & submissiveness; move toward others •Aggressiveness; moving against others ; strive for power and prestige
Karen continued once more •Detachment/withdrawal; moving away from others; avoidance •Neurotic trends- irrational strangers for coping w/emotional problems & anxiety
Differences between Horney & Freud: Karen= culture & environment drive personality, Freud; biology Security vs. Sex, Karen also believed people have control over their env. & their behavior.
Erick Erickson: also a PPT, he took a society oriented view of personality dev. The focused on Freud’s personality theory to ego dev.
Erick Erickson CONT: •He emphasized quality of parent-child relationship • Must discipline in a way that leaves child feeling loved • Must make child feel competent & valuable
Erick Erickson's 8 stages of psychosocial dev: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. Guilt, industry vs. inferiority, ID vs Role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, Ego integrity vs. despair
Trust Vs. Mistrust(Ericksons )stage 1: age 0-1 if child receives basic needs/wants met from parents he then trusts others, if he doesn’t receive care from parents then child sees the world as dangerous undependable, and unpredictable place.
Autonomy vs. Shame(Erickson's) stage 2: 2-3 years, child is able to separate, if parent gives child patience and time child is able to handle many problems on their own(autonomy). If parent doesn’t give child patience and time child feels shame in themselves.
Initiative vs. Guilt (Erickson's) stage 3: 4-6, adds to Autonomy, child does a task for sake of being active and on the move, develops courage and independence in child. When task doesn’t go as planned, child feels guilt as well as for no logical reason.
Industry vs. Inferiority(Erickson's) stage 4: 7-12 industry occurs when child is encouraged to do a task/s and rewarded for their accomplishments. If child is punished for their efforts then feelings of inferiority occurs about their capabilities.
Identity vs. Role Confusion(Erickson's) stage5: 13-19, Child develops a sexual identity, Adolescent is confused w/what to do in life.
Intimacy vs. Isolation(Erickson's) stage 6: 24-30, People want to be wanted and to have friends. If intimate relationships don’t form isolation occurs.
Generativity vs. Stagnation( Erickson's )stage 7: 35-65, Adult now “guides” the next generation(Generativity), Stagnation adult is disappointed w/amount of productivity they’re producing
Ego Integrity vs. Despair( Erickson's) stage 8: 65 +, older people realize they led a successful life causing a feeling of integrity. Other older adults look back and see regret and disappointment causing a feeling of despair.
Differences between Erickson & Freud: quality of relationships(Erickson) not sexual aspects( Freud) Erickson believed the Ego is source of energy, not the ID(Freud) and control over behavior(Erickson)
Henry Stack Sullivan A psychoanalysis psychiatrist
Henry Stack Sullivan believed in: in interpersonal relationships •Key to personality • Personality develops entirely within social contex (social psychology)
Henry Stack Sullivan also believed in: •Objective Relations Theory: people who develop abstract relations generally grow to be emotionally stable( the mom for ex) • Maladaptive behavior later in life due to unsuccessful attachment to mother, have an abnormal self image
Personal Unconscious: : In Carl Jung’s theory of personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious, it contains the individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, & undeveloped ideas.
Collective Unconscious: ): unconscious that’s inherited & common to all members of a species, Carl Jung.
The Big Five AKA the Five-Factor Model: captures the most dimensions of human personality. With acronym OCEAN
Openness: the Big Five: fantasy, aesthetics, actions, ideas, values
Conscientiousness: the Big Five: competence, order, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, deliberation
Extroversion: The Big Five: warmth, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, positive emotions
Agreeableness: the Big Five: trust, straightforwardness, compliance, modesty, tender-mindedness
Neuroticism(emotion): the Big Five: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability
Archetypes: : thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the CU. They appear as typical typical mental images, Carl Jung.
Persona: By Jung, our “public self” the “mask” we put onto represent ourselves to others.
Anima: Female archetype: as it’s expressed in the male personality. Jung
Extrovert person who usually focuses on social life, the external world instead of on his/her internal experience. Jung
Introvert: Jung, person who focuses on his/her own thoughts & feelings.
Rational and Irrational Individuals: *People who regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking/feeling. * Who base their actions on perceptions, whether through sensations or through unconscious processes (intuition)
Thinking & Feeling Persons: *is rational/logical & decides on basis of facts. *sensitive to his/her surroundings, acts tactfully, & has a balanced sense of values.
Sensing Type: they rely primarily on surface perceptions & rarely uses imagination or deeper understanding.
Intuitive Type: sees beyond obvious solutions & facts to consider future possibilities
Inferiority Complex: : the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional & social paralysis.
Style of life: begins at age 4 or 5, where each person develops a particular set of directions/beliefs.
Humanistic Personality Theory: Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people & their striving toward higher levels of functioning.
Carl Rogers: A humanistic theorist that men & women develop personalities in the service of positive goals.
Actualizing Tendency: the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential & become what it’s inherently capable of becoming(Rogers)
Self-Actualizing Tendency: (Rogers), The drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts or the images they have of themselves.
Fully Functioning Person: (Rogers), Self directed, person whose self concept closely resembles his/her inborn capacities/potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard: (Rogers), the full acceptance, & love of another person regardless of our behavior.
Conditional Positive Regard: : (Rogers), Acceptance & love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways & fulfilling certain conditions
Personality Traits: Dimensions or characteristics on or in which people differ in distinctive ways.
Factor Analysis: (by Raymond Cattell), A statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used to identify trait clusters.
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories: : Personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning, & past experiences, & the immediate environment.
Expectations: Albert Bandura, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways.
Performance Standards: (Bandura), standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations.
Self-Efficacy: (Bandura), the expectancy that one’s’ efforts will be successful
Locus of Control: : (Julian Rotter), an expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control.
Internal Locus of Control: People are convinced they can control their one fate.
External Locus of Control; They don’t control their own fate.
Objective Tests: Personality tests that are administered & scored in a standard way.
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire: An objective personality test created by Cattell, that provides scores on the 16 traits he identified
Neo-PI-R: An objective personality test designed to asses the Big 5 personality traits. Consists of 240 questions, each answered on a 5 point scale. Each question, the person indicates to what degree he/she disagrees with the statement made.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI-2): Originally developed as an aid in Psychiatric Disorders. It’s the most widely used/thoroughly researched objective personality test. Two versions of the test:
More on the MMPI-2 inventory: •Adult form, has 704 items •Adolescent form has 654 items. There are 3 types of answers: true, false, & cannot say. If person says cannot say too much makes the test invalid.
Projective Tests: Personality tests, such as Rorschach test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material. Test can be very flexible, they can be treated as games/puzzles. Person taking the test doesn’t know purpose of test, so responses are less likely to be faked.
Rorschach Test: Most frequently used projective inkblot personality test, named after Herman Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist. In 1921 he published the results of his research on interpreting inkblots as a key to personality.
Thematic Apperception Test(TAT): ): A projective test, composed of ambiguous pics about which a person is asked to write a complete story. Developed by Hermann H.A. Murray. Consists of 20 cards picturing one or more human figures in deliberate ambiguous situations.
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