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Chapter 5 vocabulary


Active transport many protein transporters exist in the membrane to bring desired chemials into cell by a pumping mechanism, runs on the cell's energy resources.
Basal body 2-4 rings mounted on a rod that secure the flagellum to the cell envelope--cylindrical-shaped--rotates in the cell envelope like a rotary motor.
Bacillus rod-shaped cell
Capsule cell covering--fimbriae/pili & flagella protruded--covers whole cell--2 functions-slippery so that wbcs can't capture-hard for antibodies to bind--hiding bacterium from immune system--glycocalyx/sugar coat
Cell envelope made of cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall--all the covering layers of a bacterium
Cell wall confers rigidity and shape to the bacteria
Chemotaxis moving in a chemical gradient--when the bacterium is moving toward or away from chemicals
Coccus spherical cell
Colony streak plate made by picking up a loopful or bacteria/fungi on wire--rubbed bbanck and forth across culture media--incubated 16-24 hrs--microbes grow into visible clump of cells
Cytoplasm content within the cytoplasmic membrane--contains all degradative/synthetic machinery to allow the cell to grow and produce a new copy of itself--DNA is expressed into RNA and proteins in cytoplasm--DNA is fre-floating due to bacteria have no nucleus
Cytoplasmic membrane a boundary/structure that defines inside and outside--all living cells have one--also called cell/plasma membrane--controls what comes into and leaves the cell--semipermeable barrier--
Endospores (spores)--grow in the cell--most stable form of life known--wrapped in multiple layers of peptidoglycan and protein--contain little H2O--protected from heat, drying freezing and general harsh conditions
Endotoxin (lipid A)--proximal end of LPS--buried in the outer half of outer membrane on gram- bacteria and anchors it to the cell--potent inducer of inflammatory reactions
Filament major part of flagellum--contains long, helical structures made of the polymerized protein flagellin--corkscrew shape and several times longer than the entire bacterial cell
Fimbriae hairlike appendages on external surface of bactgeria--usually seen in 100s per cell--holdfasts--attach to host cells--
Flagella (blank)
Flagellin polymerized protein --part of the filament
Glycocalyx (sugar coat/capsule)--covering of the cell--usually a polysaccharide--covers the whole cell-- 2 functions--makes cell slippery so wbcs cant capture it--hard for antibodies to bind to it--
Gram's stain 1-stain with crystal violet--2-fix crystal violet with Gram's iodine so it aggregates--3- wash aggregates from porous gram-neg. bacteria with acetone-alcohol--4-counterstain with safranin so gram-neg. cells are readily visible
Gram-negative bacteria with 3-layered cell walls
Gram-positive Bacteria with 2-layered cell walls
Granules (inclusions)--in cytoplasm--provide an energy source--polysaccharides or polyphosphates--available when the cell has a special energy need
Hook flexible piece at the proximal end of filament near the cell--bends to function as a universal joint--attached to a basal body
Lipid A proximal end of gram -neg--buried in the outer half of the outer membrain and anchors it to the cell--also called endotoxin--potent inducer of inflammatory responses.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--capsule, fimbria, flagella will vary in chemical makeup from 1 bacteria to the next--may have all or combo or none of these--variations are a reason for great # of different strains observed in bacterial species
Lysis occurs spontaneously if cell is damaged--internal osmotic pressure of most bacteria is high--several x's that of eukaryotic cells--bacteria with damaged cell walls will explode
Organelles membrane-bound sacks that are smaller than a cell
Peptidoglycan (PG)--makes up the protective cell wall of the cytoplasmic embrane--rigid--polysaccharide caled glycan is cross-linked to other polysaccharide molecules by short peptide cross-bridges--fishnet-like structure--gives cell shape, strength and prevents lysis
Pili hairlike appendages on external surface independent of flagella--associated with the specific, larger structure used in gene transfer (sex pilus)--rigid and long--1/10 the length of flagellum
Plasmids small pieces of DNA carried by bacteria--normally have only a few genes--carry genes for highly specialized functions--may code for resistance to some commonly used ABTs
Proteinaceous flagella organelle of motility
Random-based walk bacteria try different directions randomly and only go a significant distance when they like what is happening--important to the organisms' survival--competitive edge over nonmotile species
Ribosomes enzymes that perform translation--vary between bacteria and eukaryotes--
Sex pilus larger structure uses in gene transfer--hairlike appendages on external surface of bacteria--cell contians only 1-2--rigid and long
Spirochete helical cell
Spores (endospores)--grow inside cell--most stable form of life known--structure not completely understood--wrapped in multiple layers of peptidoglycan and protein--contain little water--thick structure--pprotected from heat, drying, freezing & hrsh lvng cond.
Vibrio short spirochetes, contain less than a full helical turn--comma shaped
Mono single cell
Diplo 2 linked cells
Tetra 4 linked cells in a square formation
Strepto chains of cells
Staphlo clusters of cells organized like a cluster of grapes
Created by: heatherlvn