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Chapter 5 questions


Bacillus rod shaped bacteria
Coccus spherical shaped bacteria
Vibrio curved/comma shaped bacteria
Spirochete helical shaped bacteria
Pleomorphic bacteria that can be more than one shape
Diplo linking of cells in 2s
Tetra linking of cells in 4s
Staphylo celles clustered like grapes
Strepto cells in chains like a neclace
Explain the functions of the cell (or cytoplasmic) membrane defines inside/outside of a cell--contains protein trasporters that pumb desirable chemicals into the cell using the cells energy sources--keeps undesirable chemicals out.
Describe the structure of peptidoglycan like a fishnet--long polymers of glycan are cross-linked by shorter pieces of peptides
Name 2 biologically active items that destroy the bacterial cell wall lysozyme and penicellin
What structural component is unique to gram-negative bacteria? outer membrane
What major chemical is unique to gram-negative bacteria? Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
How does peptidoglycan vary between gram-positive and gram-negative organisms? gram-positive-many layers of peptidoglycan--gram-negative-one or a few layers of peptidoglycan
what layer of gram-positive & gram-negative bacteria is the same? What layer is completely different? same-cytoplasmic membrane--different-outer membrane because only gram-negative bacteria have one
List the 4 steps of the gram stain and the function of each 1-stain with crystal violet-- 2-fix crystal violet with gram's iodine so it aggregates--3-was aggregates from porous gram-neg bacteria with acetone-alcohol--4-counterstain with safranin so gram-neg cells are readily visible
What is the chemical makeup of the structure that coats a bacterium? polysaccharide
What is the function of the structure of polysaccharide? coating makes bacterium slippery so that wbc's can't capture and destroy it.
Describe the cell cytoplasm contains all the degradative and synthetic machinery to allow cell growth and make copies of itself. includes the cell's DNA, RNA, and proteins
Distinguish the bacterial chromosomes from plasmids chromosomes--contain thousands of genes including those required for replication and gene expression--plasmids--small pieces of DNA usually encoding fewer than 50 genes--specialized--code for resistance to a specific ABT
What are the sizes of a complete bacterial ribosome and its two major components in S units? Compare them to eukaryotic ribosomes. prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S-(1 each of 30S and 50S)--eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S-(1 each of 40S and 60S)
Why do some bacteria harbor inclusions or granules? granules provide energy source available for special energy need
What are granules, or inclusions, composed of? polysaccharides or polyphosphates that contain much chemical energy
What are the most environmentally stable of all know life forms? What genera produce them? spores--genera producing spores include the gram-pos. bacteria Clostridium and Baacillus
What is a streak plate? What task does it accomplish? streak plate is a dish containing nutrient agar--used to grow individual cells into colonies to obtain pure isolates
What is a colony? a colony results when a single cell is streaked onto a plate in a well-separated manner so the progeny can grow into a clump until they are sufficiently numerous to be seen by the naked eye.
Why do we obtain isolated colonies? because they yeild pure cultures in which every cell is identical, so the organism can be recognized
List 4 methods used in the identification of bacteria 1--biochemical tests-2--immunological tests-3--genetic tests-4--direct DNA/RNA testing for organism-specific sequences
List possible bacterial appendages and their functions flagella-aid in motility--pili-gene transfer--fimbriae (holdfasts)-attach to given site
List the 3 major components of bacterial flagella filament, hook, and basil body
How do bacteria produce a propelling force? by rotating their helical filaments against their watery environment
Name 2 possible benefits of motility to a pathogenic organism spread and to escape capture by cells of the immune system
what benefit does chemotaxis confer upon a bacterium? allows organisms to swim toward or away from chemicals
Created by: heatherlvn