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acid base info

acid base for test outs

QuestionAnswer
what is the ratio of hydrogen ions to bicards 1:20
what is the other term for hydrogen ions; what is the other way to write bicarb H+; HCO3
acidosis: this is increased __; this is decreased ____ H; bicarb
alkalosis: this is an increased ____; this is a decreased _____ HCO3; H
acidosis:what are the primary causes; this can result in what serious thing; increased k+; coma;
acidosis: metabolic- there is an overproduction of ___; there can be an excessive ingestion of ____; there is an inadequate function of what; an abnormal loss of ___ can cause this; H; H; renal function; alkali losses;
acidosis: respiratory- a decreased ___ area in the lungs can cause this; surface area;
anything that decreases resp. rate and depth can cause what imbalance respiratory acidosis
alkalosis: what is t he main serious symptom that it can cause; is it caused by increased or decreased k+; seizures bc of CNS irritability; decreased;
alkalosis: metabolic- there is an excessive loss of ___; there is an excessive ingestion of ___; H; HCO3
alkalosis: respiratory- this is caused by hyperventilation or hypoventilation; this is caused by overstimulation of ___ hyper- increased resp rate; the CNS
compensatory mechanisms: what are the 3; buffer systems, respiratory control, renal control;
compensatory mechanisms: buffer systems- how fast is the response; what does it do; immediate; it acts like a sponge soaking up or releasing H to maintain pH;
compensatory mechanisms: respiratory control- how fast is the response; what does it do; w/in minutes to hours; it changes CO2 content in blood by changing resp. rate and depth
compensatory mechanisms: renal control- when does it respond; what does it do; hours to days; it saves or excrete HCO3 or H
compensatory mechanisms: if cause of imbalance is resp what steps in to compensate; if the cause of imbalance is metabolic what steps in to compensate; how long does it take for the kidneys to compensate; how long does it take for the lungs to compensate kidneys; lungs; a while; quickly
compensatory mechanisms: will the body over compensate; can there be more then one cause of acid base imbalance no; yes
ABG lab norms: what is norm . .. pH; PCO2; PO2; HCO3; O2 sat; BE; 7.35-7.45; 35-45; 80-100; 23-27; 96-100%; -2 - 2+
Acidosis: this is an abnormal gain of ___; this is an abnormal loss of ___; what is the primary s/s; the primary s/s is caused by what; why is there increased K+ in the vascular space; CNS depression can cause what H2; HCO3; CNS depression; increased K+ in the vascular space; K+ moves out of the cell and and H+ moves into the cell; a coma
Alkalosis: there is an abnormal gain of ___; there is an abnormal loss of ____; what are the primary s/s r/t; CNS irritability can cause what; what causes CNS irratibility; how does hypocalcemia cause seizures; HCO3; H+; CNS irritability; seizures; hypocalcemia; b/c there are low levels of Ca in serum
in metabolic what is affected; in respiratory what is affected; what compensates in metabolic; what compensates in respiratory kidneys; lungs; lungs; kidneys
metabolic acidosis: there is an overproduction of ____; what dx can cause an overproduction of h+; caused by an excessive ingestion of ___; H+; DM, starvation, fever, lactic acidosis, anesthesia, severe infection; H+
metabolic acidosis: what is an example of excessive ingestion of H+; in this what organ dysfuntion can cause this; ketogenic diets, Aspirin ingestion; inadequate renal function;
metabolic acidosis: inadequate renal function- what is not excreted like it should be; what is not absorbed like it should be; H+; HCO3-
metabolic acidosis: this can be caused by an abnormal loss of ___; examples of HCO3- loss; HCO3-; intestinal fistulas or suctioning
is H+ acidic or alkali; is HCO3- acid or alkali; acidic; alkali
metabolic acidosis: what is the compensatory organ; what do longs do to compensate; what is increased resp rate and depth trying to get rid of; how long does it take for the lungs to compensate lungs; they increase resp rate and depth; CO2; min to hours
metabolic acidosis: nursing interventions- what IV solution should be given; what med should be given IV; why should there be safety measures; what should be monitored; what labs should be monitored Ringers lactate; NaHCO3; r/t decreased LOC; I&O, VS; K+
Respiratory Acidosis: this can be caused by anything that decreases ___; what organ is effected; if there is a decreased surface area in the lungs there is a decreased____; causes or decreased surface area of the lungs; resp. rate or rhythm; lungs; diffusion or O2 and CO2; perfusion defects, PNA, atelectasis, CHF;
Respiratory Acidosis: how does obstruction cause this; examples of obstruction; what are examples of decreased resp; is there too much H+ or HCO3-; this prevents the exchange of gases; COPD, bronchitis, asthma; resp center depression, drugs, tumors, immobility, decreased LOC; H+
Respiratory Acidosis: what organ tries to compensate to help imbalance; what do the Kidneys excrete; what does the kidneys save; how long does it take for the kidneys to compensate; what organ is affected kidneys; H+; HCO3; hours to days; lungs
Respiratory Acidosis: nursing interventions- what should be treated; should ventilation increase or decrease; what are interventions to improve ventilation; why are safety measures needed underlying problem; increase; turn, C&DB, elevate HOB, ventilator; b/c or decreased LOC
metabolic acidosis: there is an excessive loss of ___; what are examples of excessive loss or H+; this can be caused by an excessive ingestion of ____; what is an example of excessive ingestion of HCO3+ H+; simple vomiting,gastric suctioning, K+ loss, fistulas, mineral corticoids, diretics; HCO3-; antacids
metabolic acidosis: what organ is affected; what in body tries to compensate; does lungs increase or decrease resp rate and depth; does it try to hang onto or get rib of CO2; how long does it take for the lungs to respond kidneys; lungs; decrease; hang onto it; min to hours
metabolic acidosis: nursing interventions- what should be treated; what labs should be treated; what med to give; what precautions should be made; underlying cause; hypochloremia, hypokalemia; Ca gluconate; seizure precautions;
respiratory alkalosis: there can be an overstimulation of ____ center; what could cause the overstimulation of the resp center; can hyper or hypo ventilation cause this; what could cause hyperventilation; the resp center; fever, CNS disease, ASA poisoning, intracranial surgery; hyerpventilation; anxiety, pain, poor vent settings;
respiratory alkalosis: what organ is effected; what organ tries to compensate; the kidneys try to excrete ___; the kidneys try to save ____; how long does it take for kidneys to compensate; is it trying to keep acid or alkali; lungs; the kidneys; HCO3-; H+; hours-days; acid
respiratory alkalosis: nursing interventions- what is treatment goal; what mask should be used; what labs need to be treated; what med should be given; why do safety measures need to be in place; underlying cause; rebreather mask; hypokalemia, hypochloremia; Ca gluconate; risk for seizures
Antacid therapy: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic acidosis; this is an antacid so it has bicard- pt could have ingested too much bicarb; treat the cause- need more acid, treat hypochloremia, seizure procautions, give Ca gluconate
Anxiety: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; Resp Alkalosis; anxiety can cause hyperventilation, hyperventilation can cause too much HCO3 and not enough H+; underlying cause, resp rate and depth needs to be slowed down, o2 rebreather mask, give Ca gluconate, seizure precautions
atelectasis: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; resp acidosis; there is a decreased surface area in the lungs causes a decrease in diffusion of gas exchange so there is too much acid not enough bicarb; improve ventilation-elavete HOB, O2, cough and DB, safety measures due to dec LOC
Chronic Bronchitis: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; resp acidosis; there is obstruction in alveoli and there is not enough gas exchange taking place causing too much acid (H+) not enough alkali; treat problem, nebs, c and DB, O2, safety measures;
Diarrhea: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic acidosis; the bowel is a very alkali environment and diarrhea can cause an excessive loss HCO3; restore fluids, monitor I&O, VS and potassium levels, at risk for coma
loop diuretics: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic alkalosis; there is and excessive loss of H+ b/c as potassium leaves the cell with H20, H+ enters the cell creating a alkaline environement- the H+ is trying to balance out the cations in the cell; restore potassium levels seizure precautions
DKA: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic acidosis; the body starts to eat fats b/c the cells are starving w/o insulin the biproducts of fats are ketones which are acids causing an acidic environment; give insulin normal saline, monitor for coma
fever: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; resp alkalosis or metabolic acidosis; met acid- and the resp alk- b/c fever increases resp rate hypeventilation; treat the fever
hyperkalemia: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic acidosis; potassium is released in the cells and found in the blood..itis trying to balance out the cations; treat the cause
immobility: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; respiratory acidosis; this decreases respiration- mainly depth of resp causing resp acid; move pt 02
NG suctioning: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic alkalosis; this removes the natural aids in the gut,causing too much alkali environment;
PNA: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; resp acidosis; there is a decreased surface area in the lungs not enough gas exchange too much CO2; treat problem, safety measures
PE: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; resp acidosis; obstruction- not enough gas exchange; treat prob
vomiting simple: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic alkalosis; losing acids from stomach too much bicarb; treat vomiting
vomiting complex: what is possible imbalance; what is rationale for imbalance; treatment; metabolic acidosis; we are losing too much bicarb b/c it is prolonged now
interpreting ABGS: what value should be looked at 1st; what value 2nd; what value third; what value 4th PO2; pH; PCO2; HCO3
interpreting ABGS: what is perfect pH; what is compensated pH; what is uncompensated pH; 7.4; with in range of 7.35-7.45; out of the range;
interpreting ABGS: what value is the "respitory" value; what value is the "metabolic" value pCO2; HCO3
interpreting ABGS: pCO2- what is range; if it is <35 is it alk or acid; if it is more than 45 is it alk or acid; pCO2 measures what; 35-45; alk; acid; acids- so elevated levels are acidic
interpreting ABGS: HCO3- what is range; <23 is acidic or alkaline; >27 is acid or alkaline; what does HCO3 measure; are bicarbs acidic or alkaline; 23-27; acidic; alkaline; bicarbs; alkaline- so elevated levels >27 is alkaline
hyperventilation: we "blow off" what; this causes what CO2- acid; alkalosis
hypoventilation: with decreased resp rate we retain what; this causes what CO2; acidosis
renal system: they get rid of what; nonvolatile H+
renal system: acidosis- what do the kidneys retain to compensate; what do they excrete; HCO3; H+
renal system: alkalosis- what do kidneys retain to compensate, what do they excrete H+'; HCO3
resp acidosis: what is pH; what is CO2; <7.4; >45
resp alkalosis: what is pH; what is Co2 >7.4; <35
metabolic acidosis: what is pH; what is HCO3 <7.4; <23
metabolic acidosis: what is pH; what is HCO3 >7.4; >27
decreased pH with decreased HCO3 is what acidosis
increased pH with increased HCO3 alkalosis
decreased pH with increased CO2 is what acidosis
increased pH with decreased CO2 is what alkalosis
PO2: this tells what; whatis it hypoxemia; is pt has hypoxemia; decreased O2 in blood;
Sa02: this measures what; this tells whether the patient has what; def hypoxia the percent of oxygen bound to hemoglobin; hypoxia; decreased O2 in the tissues
Base Excess: this is the amount of base needed to return ___to a normal value; pH;
tidal volume def; def expiratory reserve volume; def residual volume; def inspiratory reserve volume; volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath; additional air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal exhalation is complete; amount of air remaining in the lungs after forced expiration; max volume of air that can be inhaled forcefully post inha
def total lung capacity; max volume of air that lungs can contain;
Created by: jmkettel