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Science Gr 6 Unit 4

Molecular Genetics

albino any plant or animal that has pale, defective coloring
anther the upper portion of a stamen which contains pollen grains
chromosome rod-shaped parts of a reproductive cell that carry the genes (the hereditary material)
cross-pollination the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another
DNA or DioxyriboNucleic Acid a very large, complex protein molecule that forms a double-helix shape and is contained in the chromatin of cells. It forms the substance of genes
dominant gene a gene which produces its effect even though an opposite gene is present
egg cell a female reproductive cell in a plant or animal
embryo the undeveloped stage of a plant or animal
evolution a process of change in a certain direction. It is also a name for several scientific theories about how life began and developed on earth
fertilization the union of a male reproductive cell(sperm) and a female reproductive cell(egg) to form a cell that results in a new individual
filament the stalk of a stamen in a flower
genes the unit of DNA which carries inherited traits
genetics the scientific study of heredity, the passing on of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to the next
germination a starting to grow or develop; a sprouting
heredity the passing on of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to the next; it includes all of the traits inherited by an organism
hybrid the offspring resulting from a cross between two organisms differing in one or more genes
incomplete dominance a condition where neither gene is dominant so that an intermediate or blended hybrid is produces
inherit to receive something from an ancestor or parent; in the case of genetics, it is traits or characteristics
mitosis a process of cell reproduction whereby a single cell splits apart to form two new cells
multiple genes several genes which affect a trait
mutation a change in a gene; a mistake or misprint in the DNA molecule; in some cases, a loss or addition of an entire chromosome or part of it
nucleus the command center that controls the life and activity of the cell; it is located within the cytoplasm of the cell
ovary the female reproductive organ that produces egg cells
ovule part of a plant that develops into a seed
pistil the entire female part of a flower
pollen a powdery grain in the stamen that contains a sperm cell
purebred an organism having the same genes for a particular trait
receptacle the stalk which holds a flower
recessive gene a gene carried by the cells that does not show its trait as long as a dominant gene is present
Created by: sal1117