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Chapter 2

The Cell: Basic Unit of Structure & Function

What are some cell functions? covering, lining, storage, movement, connection, defense, communication, reproduction.
Plasma membrane forms the outer, limiting barrier separating the internal contents of the cell from external materials.
cytoplasm general term for all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Made of cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
nucleus the control center of the cell.
plasma membrane cell membrane that forms the thin outer border of the cell
plasmalemma the plasma membrane is a flexible layer that separates the internal components of a cell from the external environment and extracellular materials
extracellular fluid interstitial fluid in the external environment of the cell
lipids fats, oils, and steroids that are insoluble in water. the three types in the plasma membrane are phospholipids, cholesterol, and gylcolipids.
phospholipids contain both water-soluble and water-insoluble regions as well as the element phosphate. phospholipids are most of the plasma membrane lipids
cholesterol a steroid found in 20% of the membrane lipids. scattered in hydrophobic regions of the phospholipid bilayer, where it strengthens the membrane and stabilizes it at temperature extremes
What are some general functions of the plasma membrane? communication, intercellular connection, physical barrier, selective permeability.
What are some protein-specific functions of the plasma membrane? transport, intercellular attachment, anchorage for the cytoskeleton, enzyme (catalytic) activity, cell-cell recognition, signal transduction.
What are some factors that influence membrane permeability of transport across the plasma membrane? transport proteins, plasma membrane structure, concentration gradient, ionic charge, lipid solubility, molecular size
Created by: lharbridge