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Chapter 3; Federalism

Federalism Form of governance in which the government shares powers are shared by the national government and the states.
Unitary System A system in which all powers vested in the constitution are vested to the national government.
Confederal System A system in which the national government exists and only operates at the direction of the subnational government.
Expressed Powers Also known as enumerated powers, these powers are directly expressed in the Constitution, stating direct powers of the government.
Implied Powers Powers interpreted in the Constitution to be there, giving indirect powers to the governement not directly stated.
Necessary and Proper Clause States Congress has the power to make "all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing [expressed] Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States..."
Inherent Powers Powers founded in the Constitution through long established customs of previous governments.
Police Powers Each state's power to regulate internal affairs and to enact whatever laws are necessary to protect the health, morals, safety, and welfare of its people.
Concurrent Powers Powers that can be exercised by both the National and State governments.
Supremacy Clause A clause that vests ultimate power to the federal government. This prohibits states from using concurrent or reserved powers to counter national policy.
Secession The action of removing one's government from the national government based upon disagreement of governmental policy.
Dual Federalism A form of governance in which the federal and state governments are more or less equal, with each level of government having separate and distinct functions and responsibilities.
New Deal A policy that invoked many government-spending and public-assistance programs, strengthening cooperative federalism.
Picket-Fence Federalism A model in which every level of government in involved in implementing a policy.
New Federalism A shift of model, from nation-centered to state-centered federalism.
Devolution The transfer of power to political sub-units.
Federal Mandate A restriction or requirement set forth by the federal government.
Categorical Grant A grant targeted for a specific purpose as defined by federal law.
Block Grant A grant given for a broad area of funding.
Competitive Federalism A model in which state and federal governments compete for business and citizens.
Cooperative Federalism Federalism that takes cooperation throughout all branches of government.
Preemption The act of when Congress chooses to act exclusively in an area in which the states and the national government have concurrent powers.
Fiscal Federalism A process in which one level of government collects taxes, and another level spends the collected revenue.



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