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Gov't Ch 3 Terms

Chapter 3 Vocab

Federalism A system of shared sovereignty between two levels of governments- one national and one subnational- occupying the same geographic region.
Unitary System A centralized governmental system in which local or subdivisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government.
Confederal System A league of independent sovereign states, joined together by a central government that has only limited powers over them.
Division of Powers A basic principle of federalism established by the U.S Constitution by which powers are divided between the federal and state governments
Implied Powers The powers of the federal government that are implied by the expressed powers in the Constitution, particularly in Article 1 Section 8
Necessary and Proper Clause Article 1 Section 8 Clause 18, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for the federal government to carry out its responsibilities' also called the ELASTIC CLAUSE
Inherent Powers The powers of the national government that although not always expressly granted by the Constitution, are necessary to ensure the nation's integrity and survival as a political unit.
Police Powers The powers of a government boyd that enable it to create laws for the protection of the health, morals, safety and welfare of the people, in the US most police powers are reserved to the states.
Concurrent Powers Powers held by both the federal and the state governments in a federal system.
Supremacy Clause Article VI Clause 2, of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws.
Secession The act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance; the withdrawal of a state from the federal Union.
Dual Federalism A system of government in which the federal and the state governments maintain diverse but sovereign powers.
Cooperative Federalism The theory that the states and the federal government should cooperate in solving problems.
New Deal The policies ushered in by the Roosevelt Administration in 1933 in an attempt to bring the US out of the Great Depression. The New deal included many government spending and public assistance programs in addition to thousands of gov't economic activity.
Picket-Fence Federalism A model of federalism in which specific policies and programs are administered by all levels of government national, state and local.
Preemption A doctrine rooted in the supremacy clause of the Constitution that provides that national laws or regulations governing a certain area take precedence over conflicting state laws or regulations governing that same area.
New Federalism A plan to limit the federal governments role in regulating state governments and to give the states increased power to decide how they should spend government revenues.
Devolution The surrender or transfer of powers to local authorities by a central government.
Federal mandate A requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules. If the federal gov't doesn't provide funds to the states to cover the costs of compliance, the mandate is referred to as an UNFUNDED mandate.
fiscal federalism the allocation of fazes collected by one level of government (typically the national gov't )to another level (typically state or local gov'ts).
Categorical Grant A Federal Grant targeted for a specific purpose as defined by federal law.
Black Grant A federal grant given to a state for a broad area, such as criminal justice or mental-health problems.
Created by: PhungMA



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