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Infection Control

QuestionAnswer
Infection invasion of suceptible host by harmful pathogens resulting in disease
Colonization Presence and growth of microoganisms without invasion or damage
When does a disease occur? If pathogen multiply and alter tissue function
What is the chain of infection? Infectius agent Reservoir Portal of Exit Mode of Transmission Portal of Entry Susceptible Host
Types of Infectious Agents? Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa
Example of resident and transient? Resident: Ecoli Transient: Flu
What is an infectious agent? # of microorganisms present, ability to produce disease, ability to enter and survive in host, and susceptability of host.
Pathogen Disease producing microorganism
Most common Reservoir Human
Characteristics of Reservoir Food Oxygen Water Temperature PH (5-8 Urine/ 4-6 Stomach Acid) Light
Where can pathogens exit through? Skin, Mucous membranes, respiratory tract, GI tract, urinary tract, reproductive tract,& blood.
What are the modes of transmission? Hands, Contact, Air, Vehicles, Vectors,
What is Direct Transmission and example? Direct Contact. Hands of CNA touching patient
What is Indirect Transmission and example? Transmitted from contaminated equipment being used. Blood pressure cuff put on patient
What is a vehicle of transmission? Blood, Food, Water.
Most common Reservoir Human
Characteristics of Reservoir Food Oxygen Water Temperature PH (5-8 Urine/ 4-6 Stomach Acid) Light
Where can pathogens exit through? Skin, Mucous membranes, respiratory tract, GI tract, urinary tract, reproductive tract,& blood.
Are patients in health care places more susceptible for infection? Yes, they can have multiple ilnesses, are older, and are usually poorly nourished.
What are the modes of transmission? Hands, Contact, Air, Vehicles, Vectors,
What is Medical Asepsis? Clean technique that reduces # of transfer pathogens such as washing hands and disposing of dirty items.
What is Direct Transmission and example? Direct Contact. Hands of CNA touching patient
What is surgical asepsis? Sterilization
What is Indirect Transmission and example? Transmitted from contaminated equipment being used. Blood pressure cuff put on patient
What is disinfection? Type of clean technique that destroys pathogenic organisms EXCEPT spores.
What is a vehicle of transmission? Blood, Food, Water.
What is a Vector of Transmission? Can Fly! : Tick, Fleas, Mosquitos.
What makes a susceptible host? Infatns or older adults, poor nutrition, physiologic stress, heredity, the disease process, and medical treatment.
When is sterile technique used? Puncturing the skin skin integrity is broken Inserting into sterile body cavity
Are patients in health care places more susceptible for infection? Yes, they can have multiple ilnesses, are older, and are usually poorly nourished.
What is Medical Asepsis? Clean technique that reduces # of transfer pathogens such as washing hands and disposing of dirty items.
What is surgical asepsis? Sterilization
What is disinfection? Type of clean technique that destroys pathogenic organisms EXCEPT spores.
Examples of disinfectants? Alcohols, formaldehyde, sodium, hydrochloride, iodine, hydrogen, peroxide.
What do Antiseptic agents do? Inhibit the growth of micro organisms.
When is sterile technique used? Puncturing the skin skin integrity is broken Inserting into sterile body cavity
Where are most infections acquired? Health Care Settings
What is an Exogenous Infection and example? Microorganisms found outside the individual ex- Salmonella, Clostridium tetani, Aspergillus
What is an Endogenous Infection and examples? Occures when part of patient's flor becomes altered and an overgrowth results. ex - Staphylococci, enterococci, yeasts, and streptococci
Major reservoir of Escherichia colo? Colon
Major reservoir of Staphylococcus aureus? Skin, hair, upper Respiratory tract
Major reservoir of Streptococcus (Group A Organisms)? Oropharynx, skin, peri area
Major reservoir of Streptococcus (Group B Organisms)? Adult Genitalia
Major reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis? Droplet nuclei from lungs
Major reservoir of Gonorrhoeae? Genitourinary tract, rectum, mouth.
Major reservoir of Rickettsia rickettsii? Wood tick
Major reservoir of Staphylococcus epidermidis? Skin
Major Reservoir of Hepatitis A? Feces
Major reservoir of Hepatitis B? Blood, certain body fluids,tissues invovled in sexual contact
Major reservoir of Hepatitis C? Blood, certain body fluids, tissues invovlved in sexual contact
Major reservoir of Herpes? Lesions of mouth, skin, genitals
Major reservoir of HIV? Blood, semen, vaginal secretions via sexual contact
Reservoir of Aspergillus organisms? soil, dust, mouth, skin, colon, genital tract
Reservoir of Candida albicans skin, mouth, genital tract
Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum? Blood
Body's natural response to injury or infection? Inflammation
Bacteria that normally doesn't cause disease and resides in human body? Flora
Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for treatment of infection that eliminates or changes normal flora causing? Suprainfection
Systemic signs and symptoms? Fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lymph node enlargement
Antigen Foreign material
Normal White Blood cell count 5,000 - 10,000/mm^3
Normal Iron Level Male: 80-180 mcg/dl Female: 60-160 mcg/dl
Normal Urinalysis? Nitrite and leukocyte negative
Normal Neutorphil percentage? 55-70%
Normal Lymphocyte level? 20-40%
Normal Monocyte Percentage? 2-8%
Normal Eosinophils percentage? 1-4%
Normal Basophil percentage? 0.5-1%
Objective data examples? Elevated temperature, open draining wound, inflammation of wound site
Subjective data examples? Patient complains of chills, malaise or tenderness at wound site.
Airborne diseases? Meases, chickenpox, varicella
Droplet diseases? rubella, pneumonia, pertussis, mumps.
Gastrointestinal defeses against infection are altered by? antacids and histamine 2 Blockers
Order in which the PPE should be applied before entering isolation room Mask Gown Gloves
A patient who has had a transplatn will require what type of isolation? Protective
A nurse implements droplet precaustions for the patient with: Rubella
Created by: mmcphail