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Nutr (Ch. 4)

Carbohydrates

QuestionAnswer
carbohydrate organic compound made of varying numbers of monosaccharides
monosaccharide single sugar
disaccharide two simple sugars bonded together
simple carb/sugar category of carbs consisting of mono- and disaccharides
hexose monosaccharide made of 6 carbon atoms
glucose a six-carbon monosaccharide produced by photosynthesis in plants
photosynthesis process whereby plants use nrg from the sun to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water
fructose sugar found in fruits and vegetables (levulose)
high-fructose corn syrup substance derived from corn that is used to sweeten foods and beverages
galactose 6-carbon monosaccharide found mainly bonded with glucose to form the milk sugar lactose
lactose disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose (mammary glands)
maltose disaccharide consisting of two glucose bonded together; formed from the breakdown of starch
sucrose disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose (found in F & V)
glycosidic bond a type of chemical bond that forms between 2 monos
alpha glycosidic bond a downward-facing type of glycosidic bond between 2 monos
beta glycosidic bond an upward-facing type of glycosidic bond between 2 monos
complex carbs category of carbs that includes oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
oligosaccharide made of 3-12 monos
polysaccharide complex carbs made of many monos 13+
amylose a type of starch consisting of a linear (unbranced) chain of glucose molecules
amylopectin a type of starch consisting of a highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules
glycogen polysaccharide consisting of a highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules (found in liver and skeletal muscles)
carb loading technique used to increase the body's glycogen stores
fiber poly found in plants that is not digested or absorbed in the human small intestin
dietary fiber fiber that naturally occurs in plants
functional fiber fiber that is added to food to provide beneficial physiological effects
total fiber the combination of dietary fiber and functional fiber
diverticular disease, or diverticulosis condition in large intestin; characterized by the presence of pouches that form along the intestinal wall
diverticulitits inflammation of divericula (pouches) in the lining of the large intestin
soluble fiber fiber that dissolves in water
insoluble fiber fiber that does not dissolve in water
bran the outer later of a grain; contains most of the fiber
germ the portion of a grain that contains most of its vitamins and minerals
endosperm the portion of a grain that contains mostly starch
whole-grain foods cereal grains that contain bran, endosperm, and germ in the same relative proportion as they exist naturally
salivary alpha-amylase enzyme(salivary gland)that digests starch by hydrolyzing a-1,4 glycosidic bonds
dextrin a partial breakdown product formed during starch digestion, consistinf of varying numbers of glucose untis
pancreatic a-amylase enzyme(pancreas) which digests starch by hydrolyzing a-1,4 glycosidic bonds
maltase brush border enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose into glucose molecules
brush border enzyme enzyme(enterocytes) which aids in the final steps of digestion
limit dextrin a partial breakdown product formed during amylopectin digestion that contains 3-4 glucose molecules and an a-1,6 glycosidic bond
a-dextrinase brush border enzyme that hydrolyzes a-1,6 glycosidic bonds
disaccharidase brush border enzyme that hydrolyzes g-bonds to disaccharides
sucrase brush border enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose
lactase brush border enzyme that hydrolyzes into glucose and galactose
lactose intolerance inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; lack of lactase
glycemic response the change in blood glucose following the ingestion of a specific food
glycemic index(GI) a rating system used to categorize foods according to the relative glycemic responses they elicit
glycemic load(GL) a rating system used to categorize the body's glycemic response to foods that takes into account of carb typically found in a single serving of the food
insulin hormone secreted by the pancreatic B-cells in response to increased blood glucose
glucagon hormone secreted by the pancreatic a-cells in response to decreased blood glucose
glucose transporters proteins that assist in the transport of glucose molecules across cell membranes
insulin-responsive glucose transporters glucose transporters that require insulin to function
insulin receptors proteins(surface of cell membranes) that bind insulin
hyperglycemia abnormally high level of glucose in the blood
impaired glucose regulation condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood
glycogenesis formation of glycogen
hypoglycemia abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
reactive hypoglycemia low blood glucose that occurs when the pancreas releases too much insulin in response to eating carb-rich foods
fasting hypoglycemia low blood glucose that occurs when the pancreas releases excess insulin during periods of low food intake
glycogenolysis the breakdown of liver & muscle glycogen into glucose
epinephrine hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to stress; helps increase blood glucose levels by promoting glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from noncarb sources
cortisol hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress; helps increase blood glucose availability via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
ketone organic compound used as an nrg source during starvation, fasting, low-carb diets, or uncontrolled diabetes
ketogenesis metabolic pathway that leads to the production of ketones
ketosis condition resulting from excessive ketones in the blood
Created by: syfisher