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ELE 5610

Dr. Reven

Fixation eyes stop, series of stops, camera snapshot, 1/4 sec (250 msec, information is gained
Reasons for variation in the number of fixations Age or skill level of the reader, reasons for reading/purpose, type of material, and familiarity
Age or Skill level of the reader beginning reader-15-20 fixations work 3x harder skilled- 6 fixations, 1.4 words (have P.K)
Reasons for reading/purpose Pleasure, study/retain info-eyes fixate more
Type of material difficulty reading- more fixations easier reading-less fixations
Familiarity re-reading, prior knowledge
content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives) carry meaning
function words "glue words"/ grammar
saccade eye movements b/t fixations, lasts 1/4 msec, little/no info is gained
Regression reread a word of phrase, to correct false impression, a habit
return sweep reach the end of the line and you throw your eyes back to the left side of the page
Visual field/ Central Vision 4-6 words/non words, 9-12 notice shape, 13-14 notice length
recognition faster with fewer cues
More familiar (recognition) less cues/ less time for recognition to occur
Less familiar (recognition) more cues/ more time for recognition to occur
Theories of Recognition Template, Prototype, Distinctive Feature analysis
Theory of recognition (Template) store an exact copy :(
Theory of recognition (Prototype) idealized image "smooshed together" :/
Theory of recognition (Distinctive Feature analysis) risers, decenders, curves, and angles :)
Three Tier Memory Sensory Store->Short Term Memory-> Long Term Memory
Sensory Store Iconic sensory memory and Echoic Sensory Memory
Iconic sensory memory visual information, fixation, 1/4 of a sec or 250 msec
Echoic Sensory Memory auditory information, 2-4 seconds
Short Term Memory-Workbench limited capacity, time-20-30 sec, space-Miller 7+-2 allowed to chunk
Workbench Rehearsal Maintenance-repetition, elaborative-tie the new information to existing schema
Leaking Bucket new information is constantly coming in and the other is leaking out
eye-voice span lapse in time between seeing and saying a phrase when reading aloud
Long Term Memory short term memory ->long term memory, details filter out, make assumptions/inferences
Long term memory very few limitations amount stored,info will enter slow
1/3 Short term memory mental effort, attention, and cognitive capacity
serial processing focus on a single task
parallel processing focusing on multiple tasks
Time sharing/Keele repeat a light sequence(easy->difficult) count backwards (1's, 3's, 7's)
Time sharing/Britton read silently to comprehend, respond to tones/beeps
Time sharing/Britton fast reaction times=low use of cognitive capacity, slow reac= high use of CC
Reading Competance automaticity in perceptual skill, react automatically, less taxing on STM, practice
Word Attack skilled reader->work by analogy to a known word
Prior Knowledge pragmatic syntax, and semantic
Bottom up (conservative) text based explanation, reading aloud/silently, strong decoding skills, listening comp, passive reader, meaning located in text, beg readers
Top Down (Liberal) sample graphic input, generate hypothesis, predictions->continue sampling, confirm->refine->reject
Top Down prior knowledge, linguistic competence, cognitive competence, active reader, meaning is brought by reader
Interactive model construction of meaning through the interactions of the reader and the text->developmental readers, middle of the road
Frank Smith Bottleneck rely heavily on visual information (little red riding hood story)
Word recognition Table Context, sight words, structural Analysis, Phonics
Word attack stratigies CSSD
C=Context clues+initial letter 1- guess, 2-confirm, show the first letter (guess the covered word)
maintenance rehearsal repeating it over and over
elaborative rehearsal connect it to other words
S= Structural analysis prefixes, suffixes, root word. over/load/ed (morphemes)
S=sound/spelling (phonics) come to a hault->phonics, individual sound c-a-t
D=dictionary (or ask someone) look up the word or go and ask the teacher
Reasons CSSD is recomended student is moving from fastest to least efficient strategy, whole to part, from sentence to word to individual sounds, begins w word attack and resort to less meaningful strategies if unsuccesful
phoneme sound
grapheme letter
morpheme smallest unit of meaning
Readabiltiy-George Klare :)prediction-predict whether or not a child will be successful w a particular text
Readabiltiy-George Klare :( production write->runan analysis->revise
Style variables difficulty of words and sentences
words semantic
sentences syntactic
content higher at various levels
Fry graph average # of syllables per 100 words w average# of sentences per 100 words
estimating Readability cloze procedure to facilitate a good match
Sight vocabulary involves instant recognition of words, does not require word attack, demonstrates AUTOMATICITY!
decode written to spoken word (reading)
encode spoken to the written word (spelling)
Large sight vocabulary fluent reading, focus on meaning
Small sight vocabulary stop frequently (word Attack), read slowly, hinder comprehension
Basic sight words (220) subset, high frequency/high utility, 20 exposures b4 a word is recognized instantly
basic sight words depends on the child's potential, meaning/relevance to word, word configuration-context in which the word is found
should words be in isolation or context? reven-context- graphic features and semantic/syntactic clues!, Sammuels-isolation-graphic features
Teaching sight words 1-4 (rebus story-use pictures for words)present word in context, apply word attack skills (CSSD), discuss meaning, write word in isolation
Teaching sight words 5-8 ask student to write word, create sentences using word, practice for sight repetition, read word in meaningful context
Techniques for sight words repetition, asking the students to visualize the word, spell-high utility words, describe key features
overlearning recycling the information
tracing technique (Fernald) trace word repeatedly while sating it, attempts to write without the aid of a model, compare attempt w model, steps repeated until successful
Tactal expirences shaving cream, sand paper, salt
Created by: jleighw24
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