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DC NCLEX-S/S

Dz and Conditions and their S/S to study for NCLEX

QuestionAnswer
Mc Burrney Point RLQ pain - appendicitis (w/rebound tenderness), watch for peritonitis LLQ pain - diverticulitus
Koplick Spots Red spots w/blue center (usually in mouth -MEASLES
Turners Sign Flank grayish blue - Pancreatitis
Cullens Sign Echmosis in umbilical area - Pancreatitis
Kernings Sign Pt. supine, w/hip flexed 90 degrees, can't fully extend - Mennigitis
Brudzinski's Sign Passive Flexion of neck causes flexion of both thighs -Menningitis
Caput succinidanium (cephalhemotoma) Resolves on its own in a few days. Due to edema crosses the suture lines.
SNS Flight or Fight- Increases BP, HR, RR and Decreases GI, UO also dilated pupils (blurry vision), dry mouth, constricted blood vessels . Due to increased Ach. Activated by Anticholenergic drugs.
Chest tube w/ HVac Continuous bubbling in H20 chamber - AIR LEAK H20 seal chamber should bubble w/ inspiration- Normal Continuious Bubbling in suction chamber- Normal up and down in H20 chamber -Normal
PNS Rest and Digest - decreased HR, constricted pupils, relaxed, increased sex drive, warm dry skin. Due to decreased Ach, inhibited by Anticholenergic drugs.
ANP (Think A~N~P, like A hearts P, get rid of N) Excretes Na and H20 in vascular space when heart is streched. Works on kidneys. Opposite of Aldosterone.
Aldosterone (holds on to lots of letters) Retains Na and H20 in vascular space. Opposite of ANP. Increased = Cushings (FVO) Decreased = Addison's (FVD-shock)
ADH (think AD is holding on to H, or AD H) Retains H20 in vascular space. Cause- any head/pituitary problem that can lead to increased ICP. Increased= SIADH (too many letters too much water) Decreased = DI (poss Shock)
TIA Mini stoke from small blood clots causing sx of stock but only lasts 24 hours. NO DEAD BRAIN TISSUE. Asa is ok Sx: sudden decrease in LOC, blurred vision, HA, slurred speech
CVA Stoke. DEAD BRAIN TISSUE. Most imp to take meds regularly, HTN can increase risk. Before 1st meal check gag reflex. (If in R hem increased risk accident, disorientated, poor judgement, impulsive)
Stoke Sudden LOC due to rupture or occlusion of blood vessel leads to decreased O2 to brain
CUSHINGS TRIAD -INCREASED BP -DECREASED P & R r/t ICP (shock is opposite)
Hypoxia Sx: **Restless and Confused**, cynosis, Increased P and R Labs: Inc H&H and RBC Tx: manually vent w/ 100% O2 Fetal Hypoxia - cord prolapse, shows w/ late decels. Give mom O2
Nephrotic Syndrome Sx: ** Massive Protein Uria**, edema and hypotension Cause: glomerial damage Tx: corticosteroids, turn and reposition (rsk skin integrity)
Glomerulonephritis **Infection to strep 1st** Sx: decreased appitite and Increased fatigue Tx: takke vs q 4 hrs (BP), daily weight, diet restrictions-Na,K, protein and fluid Dx: Increased ASO titer
Rheumatic Fever **Group A Strep 1st-Fever** Sx: Chorea (grimacing, sudden body movements), joint pain Rsk: can lead to HF and Mitral Stenosis Dx: Increased ASO titer Tx: Penicillin
MS Chronic progressive dz, demylenating lesions in CNS. Sx: hyperactive DTR, limb weakness, fatigue, spacity, numbness, tingling, tinnitus, visual changes, paralysis
CF Autosomal Recessive (both parents)- causes sticky mucus to build up in lungs, digestive tract Sx: **meconium illius at birth**, inconsolable, doesn't eat, not passing meconium, salty skin. Tx: fat soluble (ADEK), decrease fat, increase Na & mucomyst
Kawasaki Syndrome Inflammation of blood vessels, can lead to heart problems) Sx: STRAWBERRY TONGUE
Gillian Barre Syndrome Bodys immune system attacks nervous system leading to nerve inflammation. Sx: ASCENDING PARALYSIS, watch R sx
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Upturned nose, flat nasal bridge, thin upper lip, SGA Irritability, poor sucking, hypotonicity
Narcotic Withdrawal Syndrome Hyperactivity, Irritability, Poor Sucking, High Pitched Cry
Asthma WHEEZING ON EXPIRATION, or coughing w/o sx
Nephrotic Syndrome -Proteinuria -Decreased protein in blood -Increased Cho -Increased Tri Edema and Decreased BP
TEF 4 C's (coughing, choking, cynosis, continus drooling)
Basilar Fracture BATTLE SIGN (bruising behind ear) and OTTORHEA (discharge from ear) -Skull fx at base
Hepatic Encephlophy FLAPPING TREMORS (tremor in hand when wrist is extended) -Brain disorder caused by chronic liver failure
UC RECURRENT BLOODY DIARRHEA -IBD affects lining of lg intestine and rectum
Orbital Fracture RACOON EYES
Pernicious Anemia BEEFY RED TONGUE, pallor, tachycardia, Increased R Dx: Shillings test and Decreased RBC, plts, Hgb Tx: B12 taken for life, risk of injury
Parkinson's PILL ROLLING TREMORS
NMS (think S &M) HOT (hyperpyrexia) STIFF (increase muscle tone) SWEATY BP, R, P all Increase DROOLING
SIADH Too many letters, TOO MUCH WATER Caused by Increased ADH SX: Changes in LOC, Increased HR and SG, Decreased Na and DTR, N/V and HA Tx: Diuretics
Cor Pulmonae R side HF do do L ventricular failure. **PICK EDEMA or JVD** Sx: FVO, occurs in COPD (bronchitis or emphysema)
Hypoglycemia TREMBLING & HA
SHINGLES ADULT W/ RASH/BLISTERS ON 1 SIDE ONLY
MENINGITIS HA & STIFF NECK
TB NIGHT SWEATS AFTERNOON FEVER COUGH WEIGHT LOSS FATIGUE
CHRONS D & ABD PAIN
GASTRIC ULCER 30-60 MIN AFTER EATING
DUODENAL ULCER 1.5-3 HRS AFTER EATING AWAKENS AT NIGHT FOOD HELPS
PEPTIC ULCER COFFEE GROUND EMESIS
PLACENTA PREVIA NO PAIN & + BLEEDING (think PP no P but Pink)
PLACENTA ABRUPTION PAIN & NO BLEEDING (think PA=pain)
HYPOVOLEMIA=DOWN Increased T, R, P (weak), SG Decreased BP ANXIETY
HYPERVOLEMIA=UP BOUNDING P , HTN DECREASED SG CRACKLES/RALES & PERIPHERAL EDEMA Tx: Semi- Fowlers
PNA RUSTY SPUTUM, FEVER, CONFUSION, crackles, hypoxia (worse) Tx: sick side UP
MEASLES KOPLICK SPOTS (red with white/blue spots in mouth)
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA RED BEEFY TONGUE
MENINGITIS -BRUDZINSKI SIGN (neck flex=lower leg flex) -KERNIG'S SIGN (leg flex then pain on extension) -TRIAD (HA, light sensitivity, stiff neck) Droplet = bacterial (CSF cloudy) Standard = Viral (CSF clear)
DVT HOMAN SIGN (pushing on ankle and pain felt in calf)
TETANY HYPOCALCEMIA Sharp flexion of wrists and joints TROUSSEAUS SIGN (tremor in hand w. BP cuff) CHEVOSTEK SIGN (facial spams, touch cheek)
CHARCOTS TRIAD JAUNDICE FEVER URQ PAIN Dx: MS
ANGINA CRUSHING PAIN -Relieved by NTG -NO dead tissue
MI CRUSHING, STABBING PAIN that RADIATES ARMS, SHOULDER, NECK, BACK -NOT relieved by NTG -DEAD TISSUE
EPIGLOTTIS 3 D'S -DROOLING -DYSPHONIA (voice disorder) -DYSPHAGIA (difficulty swallowing)
RETINAL DETACHMENT -VISUAL FLOATERS -FLASHES OF LIGHT -LOSS PORTION OF VISUAL FIELD
BLADDER CANCER PAINLESS HEMATURIA
INCREASED ICP CUSHINGS TRIAD -INCREASED BP -DECREASED P and R agitation and dilated pupils
SHOCK -DECREASED BP (loss of fluid) -INCREASED P &R
WHAT ARE THE 2 SIGNS IN HYPOCALCEMIA CHEVOSTK & TROSSEAU
MENIERS DZ -VERTIGO -TINNITIUS -N/V (inner ear disorder affecting balance) Tx: diuretics, Decrease Na, lay on affected ear
PE -***1ST sx SUDDEN CHEST PAIN*** -DYSPNEA AND TACHYPNEA
CF SALTY SKIN (lots of mucus -autosomal recessive)
CHF in INFANT -***TACHYCARDIA 1ST *** - COUGH
MENNIGIEAL IRRITATION -HA -PHOTOPHOBIA (sensitivity to bright light) -NUCHAL RIGIDITY (stiff neck) Dx: MENINGITIS and subarachnoid hemorrhage
FAT EMBOLI -PETECHAIE Tx: Heparin
PANCREATITIS -CULLEN'S SIGN (bruising at umbilicus) -GREY TURNER SPOTS (flank bruising) -ACUTE ABD PAIN & N/V Tx: Demoral (DONT give Morphine-spasms)
DIVERTICULITUS -PAIN IN LLQ (McBurneys point test) (inflammation of the diverticulium)
GLAUCOMA -LOSS OF PERIPHERAL VISUAL FIELD (gun barrel vision) -PAINFUL (Increased IOP0 Tx: Miotics, BB (timdol, diamox but not if allergic to sulfa drugs) -DONT GIVE; Cogentin, Atropine, Visine
ADDISON'S CRISIS N/V, CONFUSION, ABD PAIN, EXTREME WEAKNESS, HYPOGLYCEMIA, DEHYDRATION, HYPOTENSION
HYPERGLYCEMIA (HIGH BG) THIRSTY, FREQ URINATION, DRY SKIN, HUNGER, BLURRED VISON, DROWSY, NAUSEA
HYPOGLYCEMIA (LOW BG) SHAKING, FAST HEARTBEAT, SWEATING, ANXIOUS, DIZZINESS, HUNGER, IMPAIRED VISON, FATIGUE, WEAKNESS, HA, IRRITABLE
SICKLE CELL CRISIS -SEVERE PAIN, INFECTION, ANEMIA -TROUBLE BREATHING Tx: IV fluids to help with cells getting stuck DO NOT give DEMEROL
HYPOPARATHYROID CATS (same as low Ca) -CONVULSIONS -ARYTHMIA -TETANCY -SPASM & STRIDOR Diet: Increase Ca and Decreased Pho
HYPERPARATHYROID will cause Ca to increase, PTU pulls Ca from bones into blood -GROANS, MOANS, STONES, PHONE, BONE
DI decrease ADH (retains H20 in vascular space) -POLYDIPSIA -POLYPHAGIA -POLYURIA -weakness, FVD, Increases Na Worry about SHOCK
MYXEDEMA/HYPOTHYROIDISM -SLOW PHYSICAL/MENTAL FX -SENSITIVITY TO COLD -DRY SKIN/HAIR Tx: SYNTHROID (take in AM on empty stomach)
GRAVES DZ/HYPERTHYROIDISM -BULGING EYES -ACCELERATED PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FX -SENSETIVITY TO HEAT -FINE/SOFT HAIR Post Thyroidectomy; Semi fowlers, prevent neck flexion, trach at bedside
TYROID STORM -INCREASED T, P, BP Tx: PTU/ Trapazole (prevents thyroid storm)
CHOLINERGIC CRISIS Caused by excessive medication --> STOP MED Give TENSILION will make it WORSE (unlike MG)
MG CRISIS Sudden inability to speak or swallow --> LIFE THREATENING TENSILON will make it better for a couple min, + rxn
MG -WORSENS with EXERCISE -IMPROVES with REST TENSILION test --> makes muscles tense, + rxn-imporves sx (unlike Cholenergic Crisis)
CUSHINGS Too much Aldosterone (retains Na and H20) Can be caused by prednisone toxicity -ALL UP (Na, BP, BG, BV) -K goes DOWN MOON FACE, PURPLE STRIATE, BUFFALO HUMP, INFECTION PRONE
ADDISONS Not enough Aldosterone (excretes Na and H20) -All DOWN (Na, BP, BV, BG) -K goes UP BRONZING, RESTLESSNESS, WEAK, DECREASED WGT, ALLOPECIA
Created by: drcady