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Intro. Sociology

Extras, part 2 -- More Sociology review

Stereotyping Assigning a set of characteristics to define an entire group.
The disengagement theory This theory implicitly suggests that society should help older people withdraw from their accustomed social roles.
Prejudice A prejudgement of people according to their race or ethnicity.
Assimilation The acceptance of a minority group into the dominant culture.
Ethnic groups Distinct cultural identities that are based on race, religion, or national origin.
Vassalage Reciprocal responsibilities of loyalty and service between lords and knights or lords and serfs.
Segregation The separation of minority from the dominant culture.
Lower middle class Represents 33% of the US population. Made up of individuals who earn the median income and are often involved in white collar sales and clerical work.
Social dynamics How society changes.
Symbolic interactions A microlevel theory of sociology basically stating that society is based on continual interactions between people and these interactions take place through symbols, representations with agreed-upon meanings.
Social darwinism (Herbert Spencer) A belief in the survival of the fittest, meaning the most intelligent, ambitious people rise to the top of society.
The exchange theory States that social life is a process of bargaining and negotiating that occurs on a cost/benefit analysis.
Social statics The order and stability that hold society together.
Ethnomethodology The study of processes by which meanings are created and shared. According to this perspective, there is no ordered social world unless participants agree upon meanings.
Social interference A phenomenon in which a person's performance is decreased when he or she is working in a group.
Subordinate status Any status occupied by a person that is not their master status.
Anomic suicide Results from normlessness.
Altruistic suicide Happens when an individual over identifies with a group and is willing to die for them.
Egoistic suicide Results from isolation and weak social ties.
Selective perception Selectively perceiving those cases that reinforce one's stereotype of a certain group.
The cultural transmission theory Contends that crime is learned through cultural and subcultural norms.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Says that people think through language.
Impression management Refers to the conscious manipulation of role performance.
Status inconsistency A condition in which a person a person holds a higher position on one dimension of stratification than on another.
Negative correlation An association between two variables so that as one increases the other decreases.
Spurious relationship An apparent association between variables that can actually be explained by a third variable.
Positive correlation A relationship between variables where both variables increase or decrease together.
Secession A subordinate group tries to leave or separate from the dominant group.
Informal sanction Direct social pressure from those around us to conform. Informal in that the pressure is not coming from a formal or legal institution.
Multiculturalism A variety of cultures living in the same society.
Control variable A variable being held constant so that one can assess the relationship among the other variables.
Institutional discrimination Occurs when inequalities are built into institutions and disproportionately disadvantages and entire category of people based on nothing more then their group membership.
Generalized other George Herbert Mead's term for the cultural norms and values we use as references when evaluating ourselves.
Cultural assimilation Refers to how well a group has adopted the norms, values, customs, and language of the dominant group.
Secondary assimilation How well integrated the subgroup is to the dominant group on a macro institutional level (how equal they are in terms of money and political representation).
Primary assimilation Integration on a micro institutional level such as the family.
Formal sanction Pressure to conform that is enforced by a formal institution, such as the criminal justice system.
Deductive theories Use general ideas or knowledge the social world to infer specific hypotheses and conclusions.
Inductive theories Use concrete observations to make general conclusions through processes of reasoning.
The structural functionalist view is based on the premise that... ...various phenomena, especially social structures, can be explained in terms of their consequences/functions.
Bourgeoisie What Karl Marx called the owners of the means of production.
Proletariat What Karl Marx called the people who provide the labor necessary for the operation of the factories and other productive enterprises.
Over-urbanization Happens when the population of a city grows too quickly for the infrastructure to handle. Housing and jobs become difficult to find and the city cannot absorb the new population.
Industrialization Refers to the technological development of a country.
Gentrification When a rundown section of the city has been repaired and has become attractive to a middle-class population.
The normative theory of prejudice States that individuals become prejudiced when such attitudes are so ingrained the their society's norms and values that they get passed on from generation to generation without question.
The power-conflict theory of prejudice Focuses on the power dynamics between those who are prejudiced and those who are prejudiced against.
The authoritarian-personality theory of prejudice Sees prejudice as stemming from certain personality characteristics.
George Simmel believed that society is an: Intricate web of multiple relations between individuals who are in constant interaction with one another.
Affirmative action Actions taken in an attempt to address institutional discrimination.
Civil religion A quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a secular state.
The "culture of poverty" concept Seeks to explain poverty as stemming not from structural forces, but cultural ones.
Fecundity The potential number of children that a woman can bear while between ages 15 and 44.
Hypothesis A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Oligopoly When several corporations, usually four or fewer, control an industry.
Monopoly When one corporation controls and entire industry.
Conglomerate A large corporation with and interest in a variety of industries.
Lobbying The attempt to influence the government's decision-making process.
Bribery The illegal act of trying to buy off a public official.
Concept A mental image or generalized idea.
Longitudinal study A study that follows a group of individuals over a substantial period of time.
Cross-sectional study A study that usually occurs at one period in time, and looks as a cross-section of the population.
Bias To show preference for someone or some social group.
Culture shock The reaction that occurs when an individual enters a new and different cultural setting.
Alienation A sense of not belonging in society.
Fatalism A belief that one has no control over one's own life.
Cognitive dissonance When one continues to believe in something in the face of contrary evidence.
Innovation Utilizing novel approaches to old problems.
Diffusion The migration of ideas, beliefs, and technology from one culture to another.
Culture conflict The first experience of two culture coming into contact.
Status inconsistency When a person ranks differently on different social characteristics.
Social evaluation The process by which we place individual in social categories.
Intragenerational mobility A change in social status within one's lifetime.
Intergenerational mobility Change that occurs between generations.
Amalgamation The biological fusion of two or more groups.
Median The midpoint number.
Mean The statistical average.
Mode The number that appears most often in a group of numbers.
Ritual An action which has religious significance for the participants.
Dogma A system of doctrine of a religion.
Ecumenical event Occurs when representatives of more than one religion join together in ceremonies.
Created by: mjalldrin