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toxicology uct

Malignant Tumors Invade surrounding tissue and spreads from site of origin to everywhere else in the body
Mutagen Chemical that has the ability to change/damage genetic material
Mutagencicity Tendency for genetic mutations to occur
Mutation Changes in the genetic information of a living cell that can be transmitted to offspring and reproduce in the future generations
NOAEL Dose that produces no harmful effect
Pesticides Chemicals used to kill pests such as insects, weeds, and other toxic substances
Physical Properties Refer to the apperance of a substance and all its behaviors
Physical States solid, liquid, gas
Potentiation One substance increases the effect of another substance causing an effect that it would not have had by itself
PPM Parts per million
PPB Parts per billion
Risk Assessment Scientific principles are used to determine the level of risk that actually exists
Risk Characterization Involves determining a numerical risk factor
Risk Management Societys decision on how to minimize or control a risk
Safety Factors The amount below the set safe amount that a substance has to be at
Sensitizers Prone to initiate allergic responses
Solid has a specific shape and volume
Solubility The ability for a substance to dissolve in another substance
Synergism An interation of two or more chemicals where their total effect is greater than the sum of individual effects
Systemic Effect Cause damage that enters the blood stream and cause damage by spreading to different parts of the body
TC50 Toxic concentration 50 percent
Teratogen Agent that causes abnormal development of an unborn child
Teratogencity Tendency for specfic interference with development of an unborn child
Toxic Dangerous to the well being of something
Toxicology The study of poisons
Toxin Poisons produced by living organisms
Volatile A measure of the tendency of a substance to vaporize
Absorption in toxicology, the ability of a chemical to find its way into the bloodstream.
Accumulation the build-up of dangerous chemicals in the body due to repeated exposures
Acute Toxicity a short term exposure that causes effects felt at the time of exposure or shortly after
Additive Effect the combined effect of two or more chemicals is equal to the sum of the effect of each agent alone
Air Contaminant any particular matter,gas, or combination, other than water vapor or natural air
Antaonism this is a subtractive effect, where one substance interferes with the action of another
Benign Tumors well-defined tumors that do not tend to invade surrounding tissue or spread to additionsl distant locations in the body.
Cancer a disease charactrized by the unregulated overgrowth of cells
Carcinogen an agent that can cause cancer
Carcinogenicity the tendency for cancer to occur
Chemical Properties a unique set of characteristics that describes how the subsance reacts with other substances
Chemical Substances any organic or inoranic substance of a particular molecular idenity.
Chronic Toxicity a long-term exposure causeing effects that appear after months or years of exposure
Container any portable device in which material is stored, transported, treated, disposed of, or otherwise handled
Dose refers to the actual amount of chemical that enters and reacts with body systems
Dose- Response Relaionship describe the relationship between known exposure levels and the appearance of toxic effects in exposed populations
Epidemiology the feild of science dealing with the study of disease occurrence in human populations
Exposure the amount of toxic chemical our body comes into contact wih in the air we breath, the food we eat, or our skin
Exposure Assessment involves estimating th dosage of contaminants recieved by exposed populations.
Gas one of the three states of mater. gases are characterized as having both an indefinite shape and volume
Hazard Evaluation one of the four steps in risk assessment, this step involves collecting and evaluating information about the toxic properties or contaminants
Interaction the reaction between the toxicant and other chemicals that may combine with or alter its behavior
Latency Period the delay between the beginning of exposure and the esultant harmful effect (s)
LC50 lethal concentration 50 per cent is the equivalent of LD5, but for toxicity from inhalation
LD50 lethal dose 50 is a common way to reort dose-response results
Liquid one of the three states of matter. liquids ae characterized as having a definite volume, but an indefinite shape
loael for a particular substance, the lowest amount of the substance that causes a harmful effect
Local Effect the effect of a toxicant focus at the point where it first comes into contact with the body
Created by: uct2014