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Infectious Dx

QuestionAnswer
Sterilization destroys all forms of microbial life
high level disinfectant destroys all forms of microbial lie except high numbers of bacterial spores-hot water press
Intermediate disinfectant destroys mycobacterium tuberculosis, most viruses,vegatative bacteria n fungi but not bacterial spores
Low level disinfection destroys most bacteria and some fungi
Environmental disinfection cleans soil surfaces in the enviornment, floors,countertops
complement system group proteins that coat bacteria and help to kill them directly
Reticuloendothelial system works with the lymphatic system to dispose of debris that results from the immune system attack on invading organisms
Virulence degree of pathogenicity
Asymptomatic carrier a person who can pass the pathogen to others without showing sign of illness
Portal of exit the method by which a pathogenetic agent leaves one host to invade another
Direct transmission the physical contact between the source and the victim
Indirect transmission organsim survives on animate or inanimate object for a time without human host
Portal of entry means by which the pathogenic agent enters a new host
Bacteria can self reproduce ,
Low level disinfection destroys most bacteria and some fungi
Environmental disinfection cleans soil surfaces in the enviornment, floors,countertops
complement system group proteins that coat bacteria and help to kill them directly
Reticuloendothelial system works with the lymphatic system to dispose of debris that results from the immune system attack on invading organisms
Virulence degree of pathogenicity
Asymptomatic carrier a person who can pass the pathogen to others without showing sign of illness
Portal of exit the method by which a pathogenetic agent leaves one host to invade another
Direct transmission the physical contact between the source and the victim
Indirect transmission organsim survives on animate or inanimate object for a time without human host
Portal of entry means by which the pathogenic agent enters a new host
Bacteria can self reproduce , produce toxins more toxic that the bacterium itself
Viruses living organisms without a nucleus, must invade host cells to reproduce
protozoa single celled microorganisms, more complex than bacteria
MRSA AKA staph, most common cause of skin infections, resistant to pennicillan,
C-diff (clostridium difficile) bacterium that is present in small numbers in the intestines, can be spread through fecal oral route
Latenet period begins when the pathogen invades the body, infectious agent cannot be passed or shed to someone else
Latent infection inactove infection that can still be shed and produce symptoms
Latent disease periods of inacticity either before s/s appear or between attacks
Incubation period interval between exposure, no pathogen and the first onset of symptoms
Communicability period follows the latent period, lasts as long as the agent is present and can spread to other hosts
Disease perios follows the incubation period, may or may not produce symptoms
HIV present in blood and serum, results from one or 2 retroviruses that convert genetic RNA to DNAafter entering host cell.two types HIV1 and HIV2,
CD4 T cell the cell receptor sought by HIV, allows virus to enter and infect and damage other cells
CATEGORY A-Acute retroviral infection occurs 2-4 wks after exposure.lasts 1-2 weeks, transient decrease in CD4-T cell count
Seroconversion occurs 6-12 weeks, CD4 T-cell count returns to normal
Asymptomatic infection enlarged lymph nodes, decline in CD4 count
CATEGORY B-Early symptomatic HIV CD4 count 100-300, thrush, esophagitis, vaginitits, oral lesions, shingles PID, neuropathy, fever diarrhea longer than 1 month
CATEGORY C-Late symptomatic HIV CD4 cell count 0-200, oppurtunistic infections start
Advanced HIV CD4 count 0-50, limited life expectancy
Post exposure prophylaxis within 2 hrs of exposure- NRTI's,protease inhibitors PI's
HAV-Hepatitis A -most common type,acquired bin ingestion, and oral fecal route,only type that does not lead to chronic liver disease, IgG provides temp immunity
HBV-Hepatitis B found in blood and in secretions containing serum,,may produce chrominc infection, lasts less than 6 months, carrier state may be for yrs. low grade fever, malaise,doagulation defects, pancreatits, hepatic cancer
HCV-Hepatitis C bloodborn, blood transfusions before 92, most often results from needle sticks. -85% of healthcare workers infected become carriers.not easily spread thru sex, mostly asymptomatic
TB leading killer of people with HIV, chronic pulmonary dx. acquired thru inhalation of a dried droplet ucleus containing tb-suceptibility highest in <3 and >65, chroncally ill, malnourished, immune compromised.TX:4 drug regimen, INH,RIF,PZA,EMB or SM
Meningococcal meningitis(spinal meningitits) inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the spinal cord and brain
Pathogens that cause meningitis streptoccocus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae,Neisseria meningitidis
Viral Meningitis (aseptic meningitis) associated with an excisting systemic viral disease, less severe than bacterial mengts,pt recovers fully, s/s=
Nuchal rigidity stiff neck from meningeal irritation
Brudzinski sign involuntary flexion of the arm, hip and knee when the neck is passively flexed
Kernig's sign loss of the ability in a seated or supine pt to completely extend the leg when the thigh is flexed on the abdomen
Bacterial Meningitis most significant in neonates and children 6months to 2 yrs-S/S HA,stif neck, AMS,petichia and purpura
Waterhouse Friderichsen Syndrome acute adrenal insufficiency, convulsions, coma and disseminated intravascular coagulation
Bacterial Endocarditis inflammation of he endocardium and one or more heart valves-most common in pts >60 as a result of degenerative valve disease.
Janeway lesions-from ^ red painless skin spots located on the palms and soles
Oslers nodes ^ red painful nodes in the pads of the fingers and toes
Pneumonia acute inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli, spread by droplets , indirect and direct contact with respiratory secretions.can be bacterial, viral or fungal
Bacterial pneumonia TX analgesics,decongestants,expectorants and antibiotic therapy
Tetanus CNS disease,caused by infection of a wound from Clostridium Tetani-spores live maily in soil and manure-occurs mostly in >50yrs old. S/S-trismus,muscular tetany,abd rigidity,resp failure-TX:diazepam, lorazepam,mag,TIG (tettanus immunoglobulin, DPT shot
Rabies-incubation 9days -7yrs acute viral infection of the CNS-infection depends on, severity of wound,richness in nerve supply,distance from CNS,amount of strain and protection from clothing.s/s-fever,HA,seizures, no appetite,intense thirst but cannot drink due to throat spasms
Hanta Virus hemmoraghic fever with renal syndrome -carried by rodents,transmitted by inhalation of aerosol material contaminated with urine or feces.S/S-fever,malaise,resp distress,capillary hemmorage,kidney failure
Rubella mild, febrile and highly communicable VIRAL disease,spread by direct contact with nasopharyngeal secretions or droplet spray from an infected person or transplacentally.s/s-punctuate, macular rash spreads from forehead to face and torso n ext. lasts 3days
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) affects 90% pf ifants born to women infected with rubella during the 1st trimester, causes mental retardation,deafness,congenital heart disease and sepsis
Rubeola acute highly communicable VIRAL dx, caused my measles.s/s=conjuctivitis,cough,bronchitis, blotchy red rash.passed thru contact with respiratory secretions, invades the resp epithelium-most serious complication is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Koplik spots white spots inside of the cheek
Mumps acute communicable VIRAL dx.localized edema of one or more salivary glands usually the parotid-passed thru direct contact with saliva droplets,s/s-painful inflammation of the testicles, testicular atrophy, effects pancreas also
Chickenpox caused by varicella-zoster(herpes family)- direct or indirect contact, s/s-sudden onset of low grade fever, mild malaise and a skin eruption that is maculopapular for a few hrs,vesicular for 3-4 days, when older its shingles
Pertussis affects infants and young children,caused by boredtella pertussis, spread by direct contact with discharge from mucous membranes in airborne droplets.lasts 1-2 months.TX:erythromycin
Influenza spread by droplets in air,s/schills fever,HA,aches,fatigue-lasts 2-7 days,TX:flumist, flu vaccine every fall
Mononucleosis caused by eppstein-barre virus or cytomegalovirus-(herpes family),spread viaoropharyngeal route n saliva.s/s-fever,sore throatenlarged lymphs,abd pain
Syphillis primary lesions, secondary eruption involving the skin and mucous membranes, long latency perios,late serious lesions of the skin, bones, viscera, CNS and cardia system- cuased by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM,30% of exposure reults in infection
Syphillis-primary stage within 10-90 days,a lesion develops at site of exposure, crusted or ulcerated,1-2 cm diameter, highly contagious during this perios
Syphillis-secondary stage begins 2-10wks after primary lesion,systemic symptoms develop.s/s-HA,malais, anorexia, fever, sore throat,lymphadenopathy bald spots in area of infection.painless wartlike regions (condylomata lata)extremely infectious
Latency follows the secondary stage, from 1-40yrs, recurrent episodes of secondary stage,tertiary syphilis involves, skin, CNS and cardiac systems, spinal degeneration (tabes dorsalis)
Gonorrhea Caused by NEISSERIA GONNORRHOEAE, transmitted by fluids and pus, affets both sexes,affetcs genitalia, can cause sterility
Chlamydia major cause of STD nonspecific urethritis or nongonoccal genital infection, most common std, LEADING CAUSE OF PREVENTABLE BLINDNESS TX:antibiotocs
Herpes Simplex Virus HSV-a-above the waist, HSV-2-below the waist,skin to skin contact with infected area(herpatic whitlow)-infection from touchin the herpes virus on finger.HSV-a occurs before 4yrs,HSV2 from sexual activity-stays latent in the ganglion
Lice eggs hatch in 7-10days, nymph stage 7-13 dys, egg to egg cycle lasts 3 weeks, cause small red macule and pruitis, secondary infection results from scratching, spread thru clothes, bedding
Pubic lice look lilke small crabs, cuase gray blue spots to the abdomen and thighs, seen in eyelashes,eyebrows,and axillary hair as well. intense scratching
Head lice elongated body. 3 pairs of legs, affect children mostly
Body lice larger than head lice,concentrate around waist, shoulders, axillae and neck,cause small noninflammatory red spots, become papular wheals that resemble linear scratch marks
Scabies completes its life cycle on the epidermis of host, concentrated around hands and feet and webbing of fingers and toes.from intimate contact and bedding clothes.s/s-severe nocturnal pruitislife span 1 month
Created by: rebeccabelleth