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Ch 2 Patho

Body Defenses

Stress .universal experience of human existence that can negatively affect the body's homeostasis.<p> .Can contribute directly to the development/exacerbation of a disease.<p> .Can contribute to - behaviors(smoking/drugs)<p> .Can arise from +(weddings/vacatio
Hans Selye .described body changes associated with stress in the 1930's.<p> .Noted that body responded to stimuli, or stressor with a series of non-specific events.
general adaption syndrome (GAS) .A cluster of systemic manifestations as a result of modifying in an attempt to cope with a stressor.<P> .Factors include natural reserve, time, genetics, age, gender, health status, nutrition, sleep-wake cycles, hardiness, & psychosocial factors.
general adaption syndrome (GAS) 3 steps 1. Alarm<br> 2. Resistance<br> 3. Exhaustion<br>
(GAS) step 1: Alarm stage .generalized stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in the release of catecholamines and cortisol, or the fight-or-flight response.
(GAS) step 2: Resistance .body chooses the most effective and advantageous defense<p> .fight/flight symptoms disappear<p> .Body will adapt/alter to attempt to become desensitized(meditation/relaxation)<p> .
(GAS) step 3: Exhaustion .initiated if stressor is prolonged or overwhelms the body.<p> .Body becomes depleted and damage may appear as homeostasis cannot be maintained.<p> .Disease or death results<p> .anxiety, depression, headaches, insomnia, infections, cardiovascular disea
Local Adaptation Syndrome .confines the damage of the stressor to 1 location .ex:local tissue trauma
Stress factors .genetics,age,gender,life experiences,dietary status,& social support<p> .coping strategies(physical activity,sleep,diet)<p> .maladaptive(smoking,alcohol,drugs,eating)
Immune system .protects the body against microorganisms(bacteria,viruses,fungi,protozoans,prions)& removes damaged cells & destroys cancer cells<p> .ability to respond to a foreign agent or antigen
1st line of defense .Non-specific<p> .Most prominent(skin & mucous membranes)<p> .skin is acidic that inhibits bacterial growth<p> .Hydrochloric acid in stomach destroys bacteria. .Tears & saliva: Lysozyme, destroys bacterial cell walls
2nd line of defense 1. inflammatory response<p> 2. pyrogens<p> 3. interferons<p> 4. complement proteins
Inflammatory response .erythema(redness),edema(swelling),heat,& pain<p> .triggered by mediators (mast cells:histamine;vasodilation & prostagladins;pain receptors) .arterioles limit bleeding & extent<p> .know the process of <b>(NOTES)
Pyrogens .Molecules released by macrophages that have been exposed to bacteria.<p> .Travel to hypothalamus & ^ body temp.Not good for bacteria.Spleen & Liver remove iron from blood .Fever increases metabolism(^ healing&phagocytosis)<p> .over 105 denatures prote
Interferons<p> <b>BOOK figure 2-5 .Def:proteins released from cells infected by viruses<p> .Bind to noninfected<p> .triggers synthesis of enzymes that inhibit viral replication<p> .viruses cannot replicate in uninfected .Interferon production is dying cells attempt to protect other ce
Complement proteins .involves blood plasma proteins that enhance action of antibodies<p> .5 form membrane-attack complex in bacteria<p> .water makes cell swell,burst<p> .Stimulate vasodilation<p> .permeability of vessels<p> .chemical attractants<p> .bind to microbes<p>
3rd line of defense .Body's own immune system<p> .players in the recognition of the antigens that make it through the first 2 layers of immunity are T cells and B cells. .Circulate through body fluid & lymphoid tissue(tonsils,lymph nodes,spleen,intestinal lymphoid tissue)
T cells (cellular immunity) .produced in the bone marrow<p> .matures in the thymus (named T cell)<p> .2 types:regulator and effector<p> .Work to protect against virus & cancer<p> .responsible for hypersensitivity & transplant rejection
regulator cells (T cells) .include helper T cells & suppressor T cells<p> .Helper T cell-activates B cells to produce antibodies<p> .Suppressor T cells-turns antibody production off
effector (T cells) .Killer cells/cytotoxic cells(destroy antigens)<p> .destroys cells infected with viruses by releasing lymphokines that destroy cell walls.
B cells (humoral immunity) .Mature in bone marrow<p> .memory or immunoglobulin-secreting(antibody)cells .Eliminate bacteria,neutralize toxins,prevent viral reinfection,immediate inflammatory response .B cell activates & multiplies into antibody-producing or memory cell
memory cell (B cell) .aids quick response to subsequent exposures to an antigen because memory cells recall the antigen as foreign, and antibody production is rapid
acquired immunity Results from subsequent exposure to an antigen because memory cells recall the antigen as foreign, and antibody production is rapid. .<b>BOOK Table 2-3
Active acquired immunity Process gained by actively having an antigen through invasion or vaccination. In active immunity, a person makes his or her own antibodies, and protection is usually long term.
Altered Immune Response Malfunctions may include exaggeration (hyper sensitivity), misdirection(autoimmune), or diminution(immunodeficiency)
Hypersensitivity inflated or inappropriate response to an antigen. The result is inflammation and destruction of tissue. May be immediate or delayed. .<b>NOTES for different types .BOOK p40 Table 2-2
Allogenic transplant Tissue is used from the same species of similar tissue type but is not identical
Syngenic transplant Use tissue from the identical twin of the host
Autologous transplant the host and donor are the same person<p> .storing his/her own blood prior to surgery
Hyperacute tissue rejections .Occurs 3 days after transplant<p> .systemic inflammatory reaction<p> .tissue becomes permanently necrotic<p>
Acute tissue rejection .Most common and treatable type of rejection<p> .between 4 days and 3 months following the transplant<p> .cell mediated & result in lyses or necrosis<p> .inflammatory response at the graft site<p>
Chronic tissue rejection .4 months to a year after the transplant<p> .Most likely due to antibody-mediated immune response<p> .Antibodies & complements deposit in the transplanted tissue vessel walls, resulting in decreased blood flow and ischemia
Autoimmune disorders .normal defenses become self destructive<p> .Theory:viral,genetic,medicinal,hormonal,environmental<p> .More women than men<p> .Periods of exacerbation(worsening)&remission(easing)<p> .Ex:SLE,rheumetoid arthritis,Guillain-Barre syndrome
Immunodeficiency A diminished or absent immune response that increases susceptibility to infections<p> .May be primary(reflecting a defect with the immune system) or secondary(reflecting an underlying disease or factor that is suppressing the immune system)<p>
Immunodeficiency (continued) Most common forms are caused by viral infections or iatrogenic reactions to therapeutic drugs (ex:corticosteroids and chemotherapy)
Primary deficits Involve basic developmental failures, many resulting from genetic or congenital abnormalities(ex:hypogammaglobulinemia)
Secondary or acquired immunodeficiency Loss of immune function because of a specific cause. May include infection, splenectomy, malnurition, hepatic disease, drug therapy, or stress.
Created by: 522181215