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Exam II


Junction between two neurons or neuron & effector organ Synapse
Electrical current flows directly from cell to cell Electrical Synapse
Neurotransmitters aid in impulse transmission Chemical Synapse
Left & Right Hemispheres Frontal, Temporal, Parietal & Occipital Lobes Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum
Personality, Motor, Broca's Frontal Lobe
Auditory, Wernicke's Temporal Lobe
Sensory Parietal Lobe
Visual Occipital Lobe
Affects Motor speech - Understand words but cannot speak Expressive aphasia Broca's area
Affects Ability to understand words and language Receptive aphasia Wernicke's center
Affects motor & receptive gone Global aphasia
Functional unit of the nervous system Neuron
Neurons need an uninterrupted supply of ____ & ____ or they will die --> Brain Dmg glucose & oxygen
Support, nourish & protect neurons (four types) Neuroglia or Glial cells
Most strokes happen in frontal lobe: Brocca's area Slurred Speech
Coordination of muscle movement Maintenance of equilibrium and muscle tone Cerebellum
Ipsilateral Control Same Side
Dmg. to this part of the brain stem, which controls resp. centers can lead to different respiratory patterns Pons
No feedback in this part of the brain - continues to produce CSF (20 mL/hr) Ventricular System
Fold in the meninges, Protective Structure Above: Supratentorial Below: Infratentorial Tentorium
Prevents toxic substances from entering Permeable to what it needs: glucose, lipids Most Drugs CANNOT permeate Blood Brain Barrier
Cranial Nerve: Pupil Control III. Occulomotor
Cranial Nerve: Extra ocular eye movement VI. Abducens
Cranial Nerve: Gag reflex IX. Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve: Involuntary functions of lungs X. Vagus
Brain Veins --> No Valves (go w/gravity)
Brain Dmg., Deprived O2 --> Brain stem intact, but all content is gone Persistent Vegetative State (PVS)
No function of Entire Brain & Brain Stem Brain Death
Hypothermia & CNS depressants Hide brain activity
Measures: Eyes opening Best verbal Response Best Motor response (best is 15) Glasgow Coma Scale
Dmg. or tumor in cerebellum causes --> loss of balance/coordination
Produced in the ventricles then moves to subarachnoid space No feedback --> Continuous production 20 mL/day (48 0mL/hr) CSF
Low pressure Venous
High pressure Arterial
(Normal is +) Oculocephalic - Doll's Eyes Oculovestibular Normal Reflexes
Ipsilateral dilated pupil Structural compression on cranial nerve
Bilateral fixed dilated pupils Ominous sign
(Normal is -) Grasp reflex Babinski Pathologic Reflexes
Hydrostatic force measured in the brain cerebrospinal fluid compartment Brain tissue "water" - 78% Blood - 12% Cerebrospinal fluid - 10% Intracranial Pressure
Normal ICP <15 mm Hg
Measures Intracranial Volume ICV = H2O + CSF + CBV (Increase/decrease in one must be compensated for) Monroe-Kellie Hypothesis
Manifestations of Increased ICP: 1. Decrease in LOC 2. Headache Early
Manifestations of Increased ICP: 3. Vomiting (mid-part of brain) 4. Seizures (Any brain injury is prone to) Late
Manifestations of Increased ICP: 5. Chg. in VS (Cushing's Triad) 6. Ocular Chgs. (Pupilary chgs.) 7. Decreased motor function or posturing Really Late
Maintenance of Blood flow is critical because of O2 & Glucose demands of the brain - Maintained by Autoregulation Cerebral Blood Flow
Alteration in diameter of vessels to maintain constant blood flow to the brain over a wide range in systematic arterial pressure Cerebral Autoregulation
For autoregulation, MAP must be btwn: 50 and 150 mmHg
DBP + 1/3 Pulse Pressure OR (2(DBP) + SBP)/3 MAP
Loss of Cerebral Autoregulation leads to Increased ICP
An abnormal flexion that indicates cerebral hemisphere dysfunction Decorticate posturing
An abnormal extension that indicates brainstem dysfunction Decerebrate posturing
inadequate oxygen delivery to meet cellular oxygen demands Common to all shock states is
Created by: lost little girl
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