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Cardiac (ECG)

PII ECG test 2

QuestionAnswer
Apex of the Heart At diaphragm (bottom of the heart)
Base of the Heart Top of Heart at level of the second-third rib
Perietal Pericardium tough, nonelastic, fibrous connective tissue
Visceral Pericardium thin, serous inner layer of pericardium
Pericardial Tamponade Heart is squeezed by fluid in potential space between perietal and visceral layer
Epicardium Smooth outer surface contiguuous with visceral pericardium
Myocardium thick, middle layer of the heart, composed of cardiac muscle cells, responsible for ability to contract
Endocardium innermost layer, composed of connective tissue
Atrioventricular Valves Mitral and Tricupsid
Semilunar valves Aortic and Pulmonary
Tricuspid Valve Valve between the right atria and right ventrical
Mitral Valve Valve between the left atria and left ventrical
Chordae Tendonae Attaches papillary muscle to atrioventricular valves to prevent prolapse of valves
PVC's Premature Ventricular Contractions
Cause of PVC When a atrioventricular valve weakens and the pressure in the ventrical begins to drop before contraction causing the ventrical to contract in response before is should
Stenosis Stiffening of semi-lunar valves. Valve sticks open
Ventricular Systole Contraction of the ventricles, AV valves are closed, semilunar valves are open. Ventricles are emptying
Ventricular Diastole Relaxation of the ventricles, AV Valves are open and semilunar valves closed. Ventricles are filling
Layers of vein from outside to inside Tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica intima, lumen
Venous system veins, venule and capillaries
Arterial system arteries, arterioles, capillaries
Specialized Pacemaker Cells Generation and conduction of electrical impulses
"All or None" Phenomenon Stimulus is strong enough for cardiac cells to reach threshold, ALL cells will respond to this stimulus or none will respond
Syncytium "All or None" phenomenon, cardiac muscle cell groups that are connected together and function as a unit
Properties of cardiac cells automaticity, excitability, Conductivity, Contractility
Automaticity Ability of cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously generate own electrical impulses without external stimulation
Excitability Ability of cardiac cells to respond to electrical stimulus is also referred to as irritability
Conductivity ability of cardiac cells to receive an electrical stimulus and then to transmit it to other cells, so they function collectively. (sends through electrical circuit)
Contractility or rhythmicity the ability of cardiac cells to shorten and cause cardiac muscle contraction in resonse to an electrical stimulus
Electrolyte substance or compound whose molecules dissociate into charged components (ions)
3 major cations that affect cardiac function Potassium (K+), Sodium (NA), Calcium (CA)
Potassium (K+) perfomrs major function in cardiac depolarization and repolarization
Sodium (NA) performs vital part in depolarization of myocardium
Calcium (CA) important function in depolarization and myocardial contraction
Location of potassium ion concentration greater inside cell
Location of sodium ion concentration greater ouside cell
Sodium-potassium exchange pump active transport, potassium / sodium moved in and out of cell through cell membrane
Cardiac depolarization sodium ions rush into cell through fast channel, changing interior charge to + after cell stimulated
Cardiac repolarization sodium ions return to outside of cell, potassium returns to inside of cell
Resting Potential/ Recovery Recovery stage - inside negative, outside positive
Action Potential change in polarity; produces change in cell electrical charge caused by stimulation of myocardial cells
Refractory period A period of time when the cells are attempting to ensure muscle is totally relaxed before another action potential or depolarization can be initiated
Absolute refractory period cardiac cell unable to respond to new electrical stimulus, cannot spontaneously depolarize
The most amazing man you have ever met Micheal Vance
Relative Refractory Period Repolarization is almost complete, cardiac cell can be stimulated to contract prematurely
Sinoatrial Node Dominant Pacemaker of heart
Bachman's bundle Left side Internodal Atrial pathways
Pathway of electrical impulse through heart SA Node, Internodal Atrial Pathways, Bachman's Bundle, AV Junction, AV Node, Bundle of His, Left and Right Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers
Atrioventricular Junction slows impulse
Atrioventricular Node Secondary Pacemaker, slows impulse
Bundle of His moves electrical impulse from AV to Ventrical
Bundle Branches Carries electrical impulse through the ventrical
Purkinje fibers Causes contraction of ventricle
Firing rate of SA node 60 - 100 beats per min
Internodal pathways receive the electrical impulse as it exits the SA Node. Anterior, posterior, and middle pathways
Firing rate of AV Junction 40-60 beats per min
Perkinje fibers 20 -40 beats per min
In ventricular systole, what are the atrialventricular valves doing? closed
During ventricular diastole, what are the atrialventricular valves doing? open
Stroke volume amount of blood pumped out of the ventricle in 1 beat
Preload Amount of blood available to the heart to pump
Afterload the amount of blood the heart has to pump against to empty.
Cardiac Cycle the actual time between ventricular contraction and relaxation
Systole simultaneous contraction of the ventricles
Diastole synonymous with ventricular relaxation -ventricles fill with 70% of blood passively from atria
Starling's Law Rubber Band Theory - the farther you stretch a rubber band the harder it snaps back to the original size
Peripheral vascular resistance amount of opposition to blood flow offered by arterioles
Alpha receptors vasoconstriction
Beta receptors Beta 1 - contractility, conductivity Beta 2 - brochodialator
SNS neurotransmitter Norepinephrine
PNS neurotransmitter Acetocholine
Adrenergic sympathetic nerve fibers
Cholinergic parasympathetic nerve fibers
Created by: ERnurse2b