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Apologia Botany

Chapter 6 Vocabulary - Exploring Creation with Botany

QuestionAnswer
Stomata More than one little mouth on the bottom side of a leaf.
Stoma One mouth on the bottom side of a leaf.
Consumers Things that eat plants or other creatures
Producers Plants that make their own food
Guard cells They expand and shrink to open and close the stoma
Carbon dioxide A chemical in the air that the leaf uses to make food for the plant
Oxygen A chemical that plants make and release into the air that is necessary for us to breathe.
Photosynthesis "photo" = light "synthesis" = to put together. The process of leaves using light to put carbon dioxide and water together to make sugar and oxygen
Sap A mixture of water and sugar and other chemicals that travel throughout the plant and gives the plant energy to grow
Chlorophyll Makes leaves green. Absorbs the light's energy and gives it to the leaf to use.
Control The standard in the experiment
Variable The part of the experiment that is varied
Transpiration When the stomata releases excess water from the plant that comes up from the roots
Deciduous Plants that lose their leaves in the fall
Petiole The place where the leaf is connected to the tree. In the fall, a little scab forms between the branch and the petiole preventing the water from the tree from reaching the leaves.
Anatomy All the different parts that make up a larger body
Apex The very tip of the leaf
Midrib The main vein of the leaf
Lamina The entire leaf above the petiole
Margin The blade or edge that surrounds the leaf
Simple leaf One leaf attached to the stem of the plant by a single petiole
Compound leaf Has several leaflets attached to a single petiole
Leaflets Individual blades on a compound leaf
Opposite leaves Leaves that are directly opposite from one another going up the stem
Alternate leaves Leaves that are not directly across from one another on the stem, but alternate as they go up the stem
Whorled leaves Leaves that are attached to the stem and arranged in a ring around the stem
Venation The pattern of veins on a leaf
Parallel venation When a leave's veins run up and down the leaf without intersecting
Pinnate venation When a leave's veins all branch out from a single vein in the middle
Palmate venation When a leave's veins not only branch out from the midrib, but those branches also have branches on them
Linear leaf When the leaves are about the same width from the top of the leaf to the bottom
Lanceolate When the leaf is wider at the bottom and tapers towards the top
Oblanceolate When the leaf is wider at the top than at the bottom
Elliptical When the leaf tapers at both the petiole and the apex (top and bottom), but is still longer than it is wide
Oblong When there is no tapering on either end and the leaf is about twice as long as it is wide
Oval leaf egg-shaped
Ovate leaf Shaped like an egg but tapers toward the apex
Obovate leaf The upside-down version of the ovate where the leaf is egg-shaped but tapers at the petiole
Spatulate leaf Somewhat egg-shaped but the taper towards the petiole is very long (spoon-shaped)
Deltoid leaf A triangular-shaped leaf
Cordate leaf An upside-down heart shaped leaf
Reniform leaf Kidney-shaped leaf
Cuneate leaf Wedge-shaped leaf
Lobed leaf A leaf with deep indentations
Clef leaf The indentations of the leaf are very deep and tend to be sharp
Needle-like leaf Shaped like needles
Awl-like leaf Like needles, but not as long and look like thin triangles
Scale-like leaf Leaves that look like fish scales
Entire margin The outer edge of a leaf is smooth with no indentations or teeth
Serrate margin The leaf has tiny, sharp teeth along its outer edge
Dentate margin The leaf's outer edge has more pronounced teeth that also point outward rather than just towards the apex
Crenate margin The teeth are rounded rather than pointed
Undulate margin The leaf's edge doesn't have teeth, but is wavy
Created by: kalldrin