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MNN test review

unit 1 MNN test review

what role did karl crede, ignaz semmelweis and Lillian wald play in the health and welfare of women and children karl crede-recommended instilling silver nitrate into the eyes of the newborn. ignaz semmelweis-childhood fever caused by unwashed hand by physicans/med students. Lillian wald-suggested federal children bureau.
Wic head start hot lunch programs wic-provides supplemental food/education for families in need of assistance. head start-increase educational exposure of preschool children. hot lunch program- Medicaid-increased access to care by indigent women.
how do clinical pathways and DRG's help contain the cost of medical care? Clinical pathways-collaborative guidelines that define multidisciplinary care in terms of outcomes within a timeline. DRG's Medicare system that determines payment for a hospital stay based on the pt.'s DX.
list and define the steps in preparing a nursing care plan collect data/chart. lab result. H&P exam. review medical dx. assess pt. select appropriate nursing dx. interview pt.outcomes that are realistic for the pt. & evaluate outcomes. revise care plan.
what changes did legislation make to improve the care of mothers and their newborns the healthcare reform act helps to facilitate access to healthcare that was previously unavailable.
what is the focus of current maternity practices?
what is the scope of practice for the certified nurse midwife? RN who has graduated from a midwive program. and is nationally certified provides pre/postnatal care & also has a back up physician who will assume care if any problems occur.
how does the nurse get information from the patient regarding her medical history and pregnancy by doing an assessment & also interviewing the patient.
define the seven common vital statistics? Birth Rate-#/live births/1000 population 1 yr Fertility rate-#/births 1000 women/ages 15-44 Fetal mort rate-#/fetal deaths/weighing 500 g or more/1000 live births Infant mort rate-#/deaths/infants Maternal mort rate- Neonatal mort rate- Perinatal mo
who define the nurses scope of practice? board of nursing
what are the visible signs of puberty? girl-first outward development of breast experience growth spurt/pubic/axillary hair. boy-pubic hair, penis, testes increase/general growth spurt.
what are the functions of the testes? manufacture male germ cells (sperm) secrete male hormones.
list six effects testosterone has in the physical changes in males during puberty? increase muscle mass & strength, promotes growth of long bones, increases basal metabolic rate, enhances production of RBC, produces enlargement of Vocal cords, affect the distribution of body hair.
can semen be secreted before ejaculation and result in an unplanned pregnancy? yes, semen may be secreted during sexual intercourse before ejaculation.
what is one factor that can decrease sperm production? increased temperature around the testes.
Name the three parts of the uterus. fundus, corpus, cervix
name the three distinct layers of the fundus and corpus and what happens there. Perimetrium-outermost layer myometrium-middle muscular layer functions pregnancy/birth. endometrium-inner most layer functional menstruation/implantation of fertilized ovum
what is the purpose of the fimbrae in the fallopian tubes? fingerlike projections that hover over each ovary and capture the ovum (egg)as it is released.
where is the common site for fertilization to occur? outer 1/3 of the fallopian tube
what are the four functions of the fallopian tubes? passageway sperm meets ovum, site of fertilization, safe nourishing environment for the ovum or zygote, means of transporting the ovum or zygote to the corpus of the uterus.
what are oocytes?how many does a female infant have at birth and how many are released during the reproductive years? ova, she is born with approximately 2 million cells, about 400 during reproduction years.
name the four types of female pelvis. which one is favorable for giving birth? gynecoid (preferred), anthropoid, platypelloid, android.
How is breast size determined and does size matter with breastfeeding? determined by the amount of fatty tissue, and is unrelated to a woman's ability to produce milk.
what role, does estrogen, progesterone, and the follicle stimulating hormone play in the menstrual cycle? all play a part in whether the female will menstruate vs fertilization.
at what age does menstruation usually begin? between the age of 11-15
name six characteristics of early menstrual cycles. irregular/may be anovulatory, regular cycles usually estab w/in 6 mths to 2 years of the menarche, occurs every 28 days + or - 5-10 days, last 2-5 days, blood loss 30-40 mL and additional 30-50 serous fluid.
how long does an egg live after ovulation, and how long can a sperm survive after ejaculation? ovum lives for only 24 hours, sperm lives 5 days after being ejaculated.
how many chromosomes are contained in a mature sperm or ovum? 23 chromosomes
when is the sex of a baby determined? the sex of human offspring is determined at fertilization.
does the sperm or ovum carry the extra chromosomes? sperm
which one determines if it will be a boy or girl? by the male chromosomes due to the XY chromosome. XX girl XY boy
where does implantation of the zygote occur? upper section of the posterior uterine wall. the cell burrows into the prepared lining of the uterus endometrium.
which embryonic membrane containing fingerlike projections on its surface attaches to the uterine wall? fimbrae
name the four functions of progesterone during pregnancy? maintains uterine lining for implantation of the zygote, reduces uterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion, prepares the glands of the breast for lactation, stimulates testes to produce testosterone which aids the male fetus in developing the r
what is the age of viability and when does it occur during gestation? 20 weeks
at what stage gestation do the lungs begin to secrete surfactant and the presence of lanugo appear? 25 weeks
at what stage of gestation does the neural tube develop and what supplement will help prevent neural tube defects? week 3, folic acid.
at what stage of gestation are all major organ systems present? 8 weeks
how many cord vessels are there? umbilical cord
how does blood circulate through the placenta to the fetus? 2 arteries carries blood away from the fetus, 1 vein returns blood to the fetus.
when is blood circulation through the placenta to the fetus well established? after the 4th week
name the three fetal circulatory shunts and their purpose. ductous venous-diverts some blood away from the liver as it return from the placenta. foramen ovale-diverts most blood from the right atrium directly to the left atrium rather than circulating to the lungs. ductus arterious-diverts most blood from the p
what are the differences in monozygotic and dizygotic twins? monozygotic-identical twins, genetically identical same sex, look alike, developed from single fertilized ovum, 2 amnion 1 chorion/placenta. dizygotic-fraternal twins may or may not be same sex develop from 2 separate ova fertilized by 2 separate sperm
why are twins frequently below average birth weight? the uterus becomes overly distended placenta may not be able to supply sufficient nutrition to both fetuses.
Created by: lvn2013