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Chapter 5

The Human Body

QuestionAnswer
abdomen the body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. It is located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis.
abduction motion of a limb away from the midline.
acetabulum the depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snuggly.
Adam's apple the firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. It is more prominent in men than in women.
adduction motion of a limb toward the midline.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.
adrenal glands endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
adrenergic pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, or noradrenaline (such as adrenergic nerves, adrenergic response). The term also pertains to the receptors acted on by norepinephrine, that is, the adrenergic receptors.
aerobic metabolism metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
agonal gasps slow, gasping breaths, sometimes seen in dying patients.
alpha-adrenergic receptors portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause constriction of blood vessels.
alveoli the air sacs of the lungs in which exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
anaerobic metabolism the metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principle product is lactic acid.
anatomic position the position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the sides, with the palms of the hands facing forward.
anterior the front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
aorta the principle artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
apex (plural apices) the pointed extremity of a conical structure
apneustic center portion of the pons that increases the length of inspiration and decreases the respiratory rate.
appendicular skeleton the portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
appendix a small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
arterioles the smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.
atrium one of the two upper chambers of the heart.
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
axial skeleton the part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.
ball- and- socket joint a joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending.
beta- adrenergic receptors portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation.
biceps the large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.
bilateral in anatomy, a body part that appears on both sides of the midline.
bile ducts the ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
blood pressure (BP) the pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
brachial artery the major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm
brain the controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment.
brain stem the area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration
capillary vessels the tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste between body tissues and the blood.
cardiac muscle the heart muscle.
carotid artery the major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain
cartilage the support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear.
cecum the first part of the large intestine, into which the ilium opens.
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
cerebellum one of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "little brain"; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes in the meninges.
cerebrum the largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
cervical spine the portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
chordae tendinae thin bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
chyme the name of the substance that leaves the stomach. it is a combination of all of the eaten foods with added stomach acids.
circulatory system the complex arrangment of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
clavicle the collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula.
coccyx the last three of four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
coronal plane an imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts
cranium the area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. the cranium contains the brain.
cricoid cartilage a firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the laryx.
cricothyroid membrane a thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilage that make up the larynx
dead space any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.
deep further inside the body and away from the skin
dermis the inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings and blood vessels.
diaphragm a muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.
diastole the relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
diffusion movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
digestion the processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.
distal farther from the trunk or nearer the free end of the extremity.
dorsal the posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
dorsalis pedis artery the artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
dorsal respiratory group (DRG) a portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
endocrine system the complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
enzymes substances catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions
epidermis the outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.
epiglottis a thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.
epinephrine a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
esophagus a collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach
expiratory reserve volume the amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200 mL
extend to straighten
extension the straightening of a joint
fallopian tubes long, slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus.
femoral artery the principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. it can be palpated in the groin area.
femoral head the proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
femur the thighbone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body.
flex to bend
flexion the bending of a joint
foramen magnum a large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.
gallbladder a sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into duodenum through the common bile duct
genital system the reproductive system in males and females.
germinal layer the deepest layer of the epidermis where new skin cells are formed.
greater trochanter a bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh just below the hip joint.
hair follicles the small organs that produce hair
heart a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through out the body.
heart rate the number of heart beats during a specific time.
Hering- Breuer reflex a protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs
hinge joints joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.
hormones substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism. Hormones regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.
humerus the supporting bone of the upper arm
hydrostatic pressure the pressure of water against the walls of its container
hypoxic drive A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level of the blood.
ilium one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring
inferior below a body part or nearer to the feet
inferior vena cava one of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.
inspiratory reserve volume the amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume
interstitial space the space in between the cells
involuntary muscle the muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating systems of the body
ischium one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring
joint (articulation) the place where two bones come into contact.
joint capsule the fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
kidneys two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
labored breathing the use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest; occurs when air movement is impaired.
lactic acid a metabolic end product of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen
large intestine the portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water balance and eliminate solid waste.
lateral in anatomy, parts of the body that lie farther away from the midline. Also called outer structures.
lesser trochanter the projection on the medial/superior portion of the femur.
ligament a band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.
liver a large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses
lumbar spine the lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.
mandible the bone of the lower jaw.
manubrium the upper quarter of the sternum
maxillae the upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth.
medial parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.
medulla oblongata nerve tissue that is continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.
midbrain the part of the upper brain that is responsible for helping to regulate the level of consciousness.
midsagittal plane (midline) an imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and umbilicus (navel) to the floor.
minute volume the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute minus the dead space;also called minute ventilation
motor nerves nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
mucous membranes the lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.
mucus the opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
musculoskeletal system the bones and voluntary muscles of the body
myocardium the heart muscle
nasopharynx the part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.
nervous system the system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
norepinephrine a neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasocontriction through its alpha- stimulator properties.
occiput the most posterior portion of the cranium
oncotic pressure the pressure of water to move, typically into a capillary, as a result of the presence of plasma proteins.
orbit the eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma
oropharynx a tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea
ovaries female glands that produce sex hormones and ova (eggs).
palmar the forward facing part of the hand in the anatomic position
pancreas a flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin
parasympathetic nervous system a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary, vegetative functions, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.
parietal regions the areas between the temporal and occipital regions of the cranium
patella the kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
pathophysiology the study of how normal physiologic processes are affected by disease.
perfusion the circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current needs
peripheral nervous system the part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. these peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.
peristalsis the wavelike contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
plantar the bottom surface of the foot.
plasma a sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion
platelets tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
pleura the serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
pleural space the potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.
pneumotaxic (pontine) center a portion of the pons that assists in creating shorter, faster respirations.
pons an organ that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers, including those for sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiratory center
posterior in anatomy, the back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomic position
posterior tibial artery the artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot
prostate gland a small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid
proximal closer to the trunk
pubic symphysis a hard bony and cartilaginous prominence found at the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint with minimal motion
pubis one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring
pulmonary artery the major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen- poor blood.
pulmonary circulation the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins; also called the lesser circulation.
pulmonary veins the four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse the wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out of the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
quadrants the way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity. imagine two lines intersecting at the umbilicus dividing the abdomen into four equal sides.
radial artery the major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
radius the bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
rectum the lowermost end of the colon
red blood cells cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes
renal pelvis a cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ereter and the kidney
residual volume the air that remains in the lungs after maximum expiration.
respiration the inhaling and exhaling of air; the physiologic process that process that exchanges carbon dioxide from fresh air
respiratory system all of the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of lower and upper airways and their component parts.
reticular activating system located in the upper brain stem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically ones level of arousal.
retroperitoneal behind the abdominal cavity
sacroiliac joint the connection point between the pelvis and the vertbral column
sacrum one of three bones(sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae
sagittal (lateral) plane an imaginary line where the body is cut into left and right parts
salivary glands the glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist
scalp the thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair
scapula the shoulder blade
sebaceous glands glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
semen seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing fluid.
seminal vesicles storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate
sensory nerves the nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, and other modalities from the body to the central nervous system
shock an abnormal state associated with the inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the metabolic apparatus of the cell
shoulder girdle the proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
skeletal muscle muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses crosses at least one joint; striated or voluntary muscle.
skeleton the framework that gives the body its recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.
small intestine the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
smooth muscle involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.
somatic nervous system the part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control
sphincters muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameter of tubes. Examples are found within the rectum, bladder, and blood vessels.
sphygmomanometer a device used to measure blood pressure
spinal cord an extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal.
sternum the breastbone
stratum corneal layer the outermost or dead layer of skin
stroke volume (SV) the volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricle contraction
subcutaneous tissue tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body
superficial closer to or on the skin
superior above a body part or nearer to the head
superior vena cava one of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
sweat glands the glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin
symphysis a type of joint that has grown together forming a very stable connection
synovial fluid the small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication
synovial membrane the lining of a joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space.
systemic circulation the portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs
systemic vascular resistance (SVR) the resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels. SVR is related to the amount of dilation or constriction in the blood vessel
systole the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
temporal regions the lateral portions on each side of the cranium
tendons the fibrous connective tissue that attached muscle to bone.
testicle a male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm
thoracic cage the chest or rib cage
thoracic cavity the chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels
thoracic spine the 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae
thorax the chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels
thyroid cartilage a firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple
tibia the shin bone, the larger of the two bones in the lower leg
tidal volume the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in once relaxed breath; about 500 mL for an adult.
topographic anatomy the superficial landmarks of the body that serve as a guide to the structures that lie beneath them
torso the trunk without the head and limbs
trachea the windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs
transverse (axial) plane an imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts
triceps the muscle in the back of the upper arms
tunica media the middle and thickest layer of tissue, of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand.
ulna the inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite of the thumb
ureter a small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
urethra the canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body
urinary bladder a sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores the urine
urinary system the organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine
vagina a muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.
vasa deferentia the spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferens
ventilation the movement of air between the lungs and the environment
ventral the anterior surface of the body
ventral respiratory group (VRG) a portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulation breathing during speech
ventricle one of two lower chambers of the heart
vertebrae the 33 bones that make up the spinal column
voluntary muscle muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle
V/Q ratio a measurement that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is gaining access to the alveoli.
white blood cells blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes
xiphoid process the narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum
zygomas the quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone
Created by: lharbridge