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Intro. Sociology

Based on the Introductory Sociology CLEP book by REA parts 13-14

Social stratification The structured inequality characterized by groups of people with differential access to the rewards of society because of their relative position in the social hierarchy.
Social hierarchy The inevitable result of social stratification -- a system of ranked statuses in which people function.
Social mobility The ability of a given individual or group to move through the social strata.
Racial stratification More than a biologically complex phenomenon in that it involves the attribution of hereditary differences to human populations that are genetically distinct.
Ethnic stratification Refers to a population known and identified on the basis of their common language, national heritage, and/or biological inheritance.
Gender stratification Refers to those differences between men and women that have been acquired or learned and, hence, to the different roles and positions assigned to males and females in a society.
Age stratification Refers to the ways in which people are differentially treated depending on their age.
Sexual orientation Refers to the ways in which individuals are differentially treated on the basis of their sexual preferences.
Collective behavior Means group behavior which, though rarely random, generally occurs in the absence of clearly defined and conventional norms.
Mass hysteria Represents an uncontrollable collective emotional response to tension and anxiety in a group.
Panic A collective action cause by the overwhelming feeling and awareness of needing to escape a dangerous situation immediately.
Craze A situation of collective behavior in which people have become obsessed with wanting something because of the popular belief that "everyone else" seems to have it.
Fad The type of short-term obsession with a behavior that is unexpected and widely copied.
Fashion Are more widely held beliefs, styles, and attitudes toward dress, hair styles, music, etc.
Rumor A piece of unconfirmed public information that may or may not be accurate. Usually has an anonymous source.
Masses Refers to those people who are similarly concerned with the same problem or phenomena without necessarily being together in the same place at the same time.
Audience The type of "passive crowd" that is both oriented toward and responding to a social situation in a relatively orderly and predictable way.
Mob The type of crowd that is easily aroused and easily bent to taking aggressive action of a violent or disruptive nature.
Contagion theory Developed by Gustave LeBon, contends that crowds exert a distinct milieu that powerfully influences its members of personal responsibility and social restraints.
Convergence theory Posits that the individuals, not the crowd, possess particular motivations.
Emergent-norm theory Developed by Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1987), argues that crowds do not necessarily begin with individuals sharing the same interests and motives. Instead, certain individuals construct new norms, which are soon adopted by the entire collective.
Social movement Constituted by a set of beliefs, opinions, interests, and practices generally favoring institutional change of a particular or more general sort.
Social movement organizations Those formal organizations that are specifically created for the purpose of channeling either dissatisfaction and discontent into change, or satisfaction and contentment into conservation of tradition.
Goal displacement Occurs when the original goals of a movement are rejected or set aside in favor of the goal of preserving formal structures.
Crowd A relatively large number of people in close proximity to one another, reacting at once to a common interest or focus.
Created by: mjalldrin