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unit vocab

AP Gov. @ PHS- unit vocab.

termdefinition
safe seat an elected office that is predictably won by the same party
reapportionment number of seats per state adjusted by congress after a census
redistricting the redrawing of congressional districts to keep district popuation relatively equal
gerrymandering drawing election district boundaries to benefit a party or incumbent
speaker presiding officer of House of Rep. elected by the majority party in the House
majority leader legislative leader selected by majority party; plans party strategy, keeps party members in line
minority leader leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition in the House; often steps into the Speakership once his/her party gains a majority
whip party leader who is the liaison between leadership and rank and file
closed rule only in House of Rep.; prohibits amendments to a bill, or only the committee reporting the bill can suggest amendments
open rule only in the House; a bill can have amendments made to it
refusal of a rule House rules committee can delay consideration of a bill by refusing to assign a rule (either open or closed)
hold practice in the senate whereby a senator temporarily blocks the consideration of a bill or nomination
president pro tempore officer of the senate selected by the majority pary to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
filibuster senate, whereby a senator holds the floor and therby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue
cloture in the senatet: terminates debate, especially filibuster
senatorial courtesy president's custom of submitting prospective appointees for approval to senators
delegate view that legislators should represent the views of their constituents despite their own views
trustee view that legislators should vote independently based on own judgement of facts
log rolling vote trading among legislators
standing committee permanent committee; focused on a policy area
rider irrelevant provision added to a bill to secure its passage
pocket veto president waits 10 days w/out signing bill and congress has adjourned
override 2/3 vote in each senate and house that approves a bill after president has vetoed
joint committee committee composed of members from both senate and house
select/special committee committee created for a specific purpose
discharge position petition that, if signed by by a majority of House, will force a bill out of committee and bring it to the floor for consideration
seniority rule practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to a member of the majority party whom has had the longest continous service on the committee
conference committee committee appointed by presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different forms
pork barrel legistlation government benefits or programs that may help the economy of a member of congress's district
appropriations bills has to be signed by congress and then the president to approve funds
franking privilege perk incumbents have to help gain reelection: free mailing to constituents
executive privilege the right for a president to withhold or protect information related to national security under certain conditions
Executive Order order issued by a president of governor that has the force of law.
Item Veto Power of an executive to veto parts of legislation; unconstitutional for a president to use, but okay for many governors
Impoundment not spending funds for purposes congress has authorized
Continuing Resolutions extending the authority for government spending for a few days or months
Judicial Review power to authoritatively interpret the constitution
Class Action Lawsuit Lawsuit brought by an individual or a group of people on behalf of all those similarily situated
Stare Decisis the rule of precedent
appellate Jurisdiction the authority to review appeals of the decisions made by lower courts
Court of Appeals Court with appellate jurisdiction that hears appelas from the decisions of lower courts
Petit Jury jury of 6-12 people who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
Habeas Corpus court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is held in custody
judicial restraint judicial philosophy proposing proposing that judges should interpret the constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
Judicial Activism judicial philosophy proposingthat judges should interpret the constitution to reflect current conditions and values
Amicus Curiae Literally "friend of the court"; individuals/groups who present additional information to a case
bureaucrat career government employee
bureaucracy professional corporation of official organized in a pyramidal hierarchy and functioning under impersonal, uniform rules and procedures
Spoils system system of public employment based on rewardignpary loyalists and friends
Merit System system in which selection and employment depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage
Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations.
Bureau largest subunit of a government department or agency
Government Corporation cross between a business corp. and gov. agency; created to secure greater freeedom of action and flexibility for a particular program
Independent Agency government entity that is independent of the legilsative, executive, and judicial branch
Independent Regulatory Board independent agency or commission with regulatory powers whose independence is protected by congress
Office of Management and Budget Presidential staff agency that serves as a clearing house for budgetary requests and managemnet improvements
Hatch Act prohibits federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protects them from being fired on partisan grounds
Iron Triangle mutually supported relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and governmental agencies that share a common policy concern
Created by: chelsb