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Chest and Upper Ext

Chest and Upper Extremity Midterm

1. anatomy refers to STRUCTURE of the body
2. what term refers to the study of FUNCTION of the body? physiology
3. PATHOLOGY is the study of what? diseases of the body
4. a general knowledge of ______ helps the limited operator understand the reasons procedures are needed PATHOLOGY
5. how many levels of structural organization of the human body are there? 6
6. the smallest units of living things are called cells
7. tissues are defined as a group of similar cells that work together to perform complex functions
8. a group of tissues that work together to perform specialized and complex functions is called an organ
9. what is a system a group of organs that work together to perform complex functions
10. what is the highest level of human structural organization system
11. what are the main parts of a cell? plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
12. which part of the cell encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of the cell? plasma membrane
13. which tissue type is the most widely distributed and has the greatest variety of form and function connective
14. which tissue type functions to produce movement muscle
15. how many major organ systems comprise the human body? 11
16. which organ system is composed of the heart and the blood vessels? the circulatory system
17. which organ system does not function for the survival of the individual? reproductive system
18. how many bones in the body? 206
19. what are the parts of the "axial skeleton"? skull spine sternum ribs
20. name some examples of "long bones" femur humerus tibia fibula radius ulna
21. name some examples of "short bones" carpal bones tarsal bones
22. a rounded process that forms part of a joint is called? condyle
23. a long, sharp, bony process is called styloid
24. a hole in a bone that provides a passage for nerves and blood vessels is called foramen
25. what term is applied to joints that are NOT moveable synarthrosis
26. movement of a part AWAY from the central axis is called abduction
27. what is anatomic position? standing, facing the observer, palms forward, toes forward
28. what does CEPHALAD mean? towards the head
29. term used to describe the back portion of the body posterior
30. the mid-coronal plane divides the body how? anterior and posterior halves
31. which body position term indicates that the patient is laying on their back? supine
32. when the patient is imaged in the PRONE position, the patient my be positioned how? in a recumbent position, laying on their stomach
33. which radiographic position requires a horizontal xray beam, and a recumbent body position? decubitus
34. an axial projection is achieved when the CR is angled longitudinally more than 10 degrees
35. what is indicated by a side marker? the side of the patient being xrayed
36. what is the result of imaging a patient in motion on an xray? blurr
37. a prediction of the course of the disease and the prospects for the patient's recovery is termed prognosis
38. if a disease is classified as a congenital disease, this means that the condition was present at birth
39. diseases that are characterized by a sudden onset of symptoms and or signs are called what type of conditions? acute
40. when the cause of a disease is unknown, then the disease is calssified as idiopathic
41. diseases that occur as a result of treatment by a HCP iatrogenic
42. which disease classification refers to those diseases acquired within the hospital nosocomial
43. what is the medical term for growth of a tumor neoplasm
44. what term is used to denote the spread of malignant neoplasm? metastasis
45. what makes up the "bony thorax" 12 ribs 12 vertebrae the sternum
46. the uppermost portion of the sternum is called the manubrium
47. the indention in the top of the manubrium is called manubrial notch
48. the xiphoid process is located at the distal tip of the sternum
49. the middle portion or the body of the sternum is called the gladiolus
50. what name is given to the first 7 pairs of ribs? true ribs
51. how many pairs of ribs are classified as "false" ribs the lower 5
52. how many floating ribs are there? 2 pairs
53. what structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? the diaphragm
54. what is found within the mediastinum? heart trachea esophagus the great vessels
55. what does the term "great vessels" refer to? vessels that carry blood to and from the heart
56. how many lobes are in the right lung? 3
57. how many lobes are in the left lung? 2
58. the LATERAL INFERIOR corners of the lungs, visible on a PA chest xray are called? costophrenic angles
59. in which quadrant of the abdomen is the largest portion of the liver located upper right
60. if the patient is complaining of pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, what part of the anatomy might be the cause of the pain? appendix
61. when the abdomen is divided into 9 parts, the upper middle portion is called epigastric
62. what is the primary function of the small intestine digestion and absorption
63. where is the gallbladder located? on the under surface of the liver
64. what is the function of the gallbladder? store bile
65. which organ manufactures enzymes that are essential to sugar metablosim pancreas
66. what body habitus term is applied to the person of normal size? sthenic
67. which body habitus is characterized as a massive stocky build? hypersthenic
68. which portion of the ribs is best demonstrated on the AP projection? the posterior portion
69. routine positions for the right 5th anterior rib are PA and RAO
70. routine postions for the left 10th posterior rib are AP and LPO
71. which ribs are best demonstrated when the exposure is made after the patient has suspended respiration after INSPIRATION ribs 1-9
72. what makes a CXR different from a rib xray? 72" higher kVp used on CXR exposure may be made on expiration
73. routine projections of the sternum include PA and RAO
74. when taking a PA projection of the chest, the recommended SID is 72"
75. what is the purpose of the 72" SID for a CXR? minimizes magnification of the heart shadow
76. why do we take a CXR upright? air fluid levels maximum lung expansion
77. lateral projections of the chest are taken with the left side against the IR because magnification of the cardiac silhouette is reduced with the left side near the IR, it places the heart closest to the film
78. for a CXR, which body habitus is best visualized with the 14x17 film placed crosswise? hypersthenic
79. which of the following techniques is desirable for a CXR? high kVp high mA short exposure time
80. what do we do to rotate the scapula out of the lungs on a PA CXR? place the back of the patients hands on their hips, and rotate the shoulders forward
81. where does the CR enter the patient for the upright PA projection of the chest midsagittal plane at the level of T7
82. what is the proper placement of the arms for the upright, lateral projection of the chest raised above the head, grasping opposite elbows
83. what are the proper patient instructions for the PA projection of the chest stop breathing after second deep inspiration
84. which of the following projections is best for demonstration of the apices of the lungs without bony superimposition AP axial, lordotic position
85. which projection benefits from the use of the "breathing technique" oblique sternum
86. what does the acronym KUB represent? kidney ureter bladder
87. what are the proper patient instructions for the AP projection of the abdomen with the patient in supine position stop breathing after expiration
88. an AP upright projection of the abdomen is useful for the visualization of air-fluid levels in the intestines
89. where should the CR enter the patient on the upright AP projection of the abdomen midsagittal plane approximately 2-3" above the iliac crest
90. if a ptient is unable to stand for an upright projection of the abdomen, which of the following positions may be substituted left lateral decubitus
91. the essential factor for demonstration of air-fluid levels in radiography is horizontal x-ray beam
92. what is the name of an inflammatory, occupational lung disease caused by inhaling irritating dust pneumoconiosis
93. what abdominal features are seen on a "plain film" outer contours of the kidney psoas muscles liver shadow
94. what term is applied to the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity? ascites
95. the prescence of air in the pleural cavity is called pneumothorax (new-mo-thor-ax)
96. the collapse of a lung is known as atelectasis (at-a lect-ta-sis)