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stress & adaptation

chapter 42

QuestionAnswer
stress results from changes in the environment that is perceived as a threat. can be positive or negative
stressor anything perceived to be threatening
strsss affects__________ physical, emotional, intellecutal, social, spiritual aspect of pt
physiologic homeostasis goal is to keep the body is balance
adaptation changes that occur due to respose to the stressor
stages of general adaptation syndrome alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion
alarm reaction stage of GAS shock phase. may last 1 minute to several hours. fight or flight response occurs
fight or flight response increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, increase peripheral vasoconstriciton, increase metabolism, increase water retention, increase mental alertness.
resistance stage of GAS body stabilizes and regains homeostasis or adative mechanisms fail.
exhaustion stage of GAS body either rests and mobilizes its defenses to return to normal or dies.
psychological homeostasis these needs must be met: love& belonging, safety & security, self-esteem
emotional response to stress depression, anger, anxiety
levels of anxiety mild, moderate, severe, panic
positive level of anxiety mild
anxiety vague,uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread. source in non-specific
coping mechanisms used to decress stress crying, laughing, sleeping, exercis, drinking, smoking, eating, lack of eye contact, withdrawal
task oriented reaction to stress conscious decision to decrease stress
types of task oriented reaction to stress attack behavior, withdrawl, compromise behavior
attack behavior problem solving (positive)/ agression (negative)
withdrawal behavior withdrawing from stress, "giving up"
compromise behavior finding a positive reason for stress
defense mechaninsms used with stress compenstaion, denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, regression,
effects of long term stress increses risk for disease, affects physical status
family stressors changes in family structure/roles, loss of control, concern for future financial stabilty
factors affecting stress and adaptation source of stress, types of stress personal factors
sources of stress developmental and situational
developmental stress occurs as one progessess through stages of growth and development. maybe positive or negative
situational stress does not occur in predictable patterns. maybe positive or negative
types of stressors physiologic and psychosocial
physiologic stressor infectious agents, nutritional deficiencies, immune disorders
psychosocial stressors real and perceived threats
healthy ADL's to cope with stress exercise, rest/sleep, proper nutrition, use of support systems, use of stress management techniques
stress management techniques relaxation, meditation, anticipatory guidance, music therapy
how to evaluate interventions pt verbalizes what causes stress, pt verbalizes decrease in stress
example of manifestations of long term stress cardiovascular disease, cancer, GI diorders
coping mechanisms are used to________ protect the ego
raationalization justfiying when things do not go as expected
denial when a pt does not view behavior/choices as affecting their health or a situation
crisis when in crisis mode pt in unable to learn or to hear/understand all of what the nurse is saying. short,direct statements are made to the pt.
Created by: N119