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Thalassemia is? the body's inability to produce enough healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin (↓ globin synthesis)
Tay-Sachs disease is? a rare inherited disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord
Sideroblastic anemia ↓porphyrin
The severity of anemia is usually tested by _____ levels. Hemoglobin (Hgb)
Microcytic anemia "Find Those Small Cells" Fe deficiency Thalassemia Sideroblastic Chronic disease
Mild Anemia : reference range Hgb 10-12 g/dL
Moderate Anemia : reference range Hgb 6-10 g/dL
Severe Anemia : reference range Hgb <6 g/dL
Metrorrhagia is? uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, between the expected menstrual periods
Icteric sclera is? a condition in which the whites of the eyes become yellow
The fingernails of anemic persons may appear _____-_____. spoon shaped
The tongue of anemic persons may appear _____. glossitic (beefy, red)
Some neurologic issues an anemic person may display are? roaring in ears, confusion, loss of vibration sense, unsteady gait
Cobalamin (Vit B12), food sources? red meats (liver), eggs, enriched grains
Folic acid, food sources? green leafy veges, liver, meat, fish , legumes, whole grains
Iron, food sources? liver & muscle meats, eggs, dried fruits, legumes, dark leafy veges, whole grains, enriched grains
Pyridoxoine (Vit B6), food sources? meats, wheat germ, legumes potatoes, cornmeal, bananas
Amino Acids, food sources? eggs, meat, milk & products, poultry, fish , legumes, nuts
Ascorbic Acid, food sources? citrus fruits, green leafy veges, strawberries, cantaloupe
Drugs that interfere with absorption/use of folic acid? methotrexate, anti-seizure drugs (phenobarbital, dilantin),
Megaloblastic anemia is caused by? Folic acid deficiency
Folic acid deficiency is treated by? replacement therapy (usually 1mg PO daily), in malabsorption states - 5mg
Pt. with anemia should be protected from? burns, falls, and trauma; pt. have diminished sensation of heat/pain
Congenital causes of aplastic anemia include? Fanconi syndrome, Congenital dyskeratosis, Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome
Prognosis of severe untreated aplastic anemia is approximately ______% 70% fatal
10% loss in blood volume, clinical manifestations? none
20% loss in blood volume, clinical manifestations? tachycardia with exercise, slight postural HTN
30% loss in blood volume, clinical manifestations? postural HTN with exercise, normal supine BP and pulse at rest
40% loss in blood volume, clinical manifestations? ↓BP, central venous pressure, and cardiac output at rest; pulse: rapid/thready; skin: cold/clammy
50% loss in blood volume, clinical manifestations? shock → death
Sickle Cell Disease is a mutation of? Beta-globin located on chromosome 11
Sickling episodes are commonly triggered by? low oxygen tension in the blood, dehydration, acidosis, plasma osmolality, decreased plasma volume, low body temperature
Clinical hallmarks of sickle cell disease include? vaso-occlusive phenomena and hemolysis
Hemochromatosis is? an iron overload disorder
Hemochromatosis occurs secondary to? thalassemia ad sideroblastic anemia
Severe Hemochromatosis, leads to? cirrhosis of the liver
Hemochromatosis, treatment? removal 500mL of blood weekly for 2-3 yrs. to deplete iron stores
Most platelet disorders are (inherited / acquired)? acquired
Most common form of acquired thrombocytopenia? Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Hemophilia A, mutation is of clotting factor _____. VIII
Hemophilia B, mutation is of clotting factor _____. IX
Analgesics that should never be used as treatment for hemophiliacs? Aspirin and aspirin containing products
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, presentation? abrupt onset & dramatic, serious infection/bleeding, hyperplasia of bone marrow
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, presentation? most common type in children, most of B-cell origin, abrupt onset with bleeding or fever, CNS manifestations (Leukemic meningitis)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, presentation? stages: chronic stable → more acute, "blastic phase"
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, presentation? most common in adults, large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma called Richter's syndrome
Hodgkin's Lymphoma is? a cancer of lymph tissue found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other sites
In Hodgkin's Lymphoma, initial enlargement is seen in _____, ____, or lymph nodes? cervical, axillary, or inguinal
Dextrose solutions or lactated Ringer's solution will cause _____ to RBCs? hemolysis
Created by: fluency