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Geography Exam 112

Minerals naturally occurring, pure, non-living substances that are found in the rocks in the earth. When refined yield a group of materials that are metallic minerals (copper, gold, iron etc.)
Fossil Fuels are any mineral that can be burned to produce energy (coal, oil, natural gas etc)
Industrial minerals (salt, asbestos) are used by industry manufacturing
Mineral reserves Mineral deposits that are economical to mine
Geology is the science that deals with the dynamics and physical history of the earth, the rocks which it is comprised of and the processes which alter the earth
Geologists are experts that study the history, composition, and structure of the Earth’s crust
Ore mineral is rock that provides enough valuable minerals to make mining profitable
Underground mining is the technique used to recover deep mineral deposits
Strip mining is the method of mining used to recover mineral deposits located very near the surface
Open Pit Mining a method of mining that utilizes a large hole that is dug for the purpose
Groundfish fish, such as cod and sole that live and feed near the bottom of the sea
Pelegic Fish fish that feed and are caught near e. salmon, tuna, herring
Shellfish molluscs and crustaceans such as oysters, shrimps and lobsters
Balance of trade difference between value of exports and value of imports. If exports exceed imports, there is a trade surplus. If imports exceed exports, there is a trade deficit.
Continental Shelf gently sloping outer edge of a continent, that exceeds below surface of the ocean to a maximum depth of about 200 meters
Fishing Banks shallow area on the continental shelf that provides a feeding and spawning ground for fish
Plankton microscope plants and animals eaten by small fish and shellfish
Inshore Fishing commercial fishing that takes places within a few kilometres of shoreline. Small fishing boats go out to sea and return to shore each day
Offshore Fishing ocean fishery done from boats longer than 25 meters. The boats stay at sea several days before returning to share with their catch.
Sustained Yield Management use of a renewable resource at a rate that allows the resource to renew itself. For example, the number of fish caught should not be greater than the number fish reaching maturity
Aquaculture protection of fish on other marine products or fish forms
Overfishing The catch allowed by the federal government each year appears to have been too high
Improved Fishing Technology By the later 1960s, the foreign fishing fleets of countries such as Russia and Japan caught far more fish than sustained yield methods would have allowed
Destructive Fishing Practices When trawlers were trying to catch one kind of fish; many other types of fish may have been caught in the nets. These unwanted fish, which were already dead, were usually thrown away
Changes in Natural Conditions environmental changes becoming the blame. Water temperatures become cooler (changes migration routes), decline un sealing industry caused increase in seal population seals are eating most our fishes
Commercial Forest part of a forest that has large enough trees and is closer enough to a market to allow it to be harvested by the forest industry
Non-commercial Forest part of a forest that has trees too small or is too far away from the market
Boreal Forest(and Taiga forest) coniferous (needle leaved) forest that stretches from east to west across Canada, south of the tundra but north of the grasslands
Mixed Forest vegetation region that combines both coniferous and deciduous trees. If is a transition zone between the deciduous forest and boreal forest
Clear cutting logging method where all trees in an area (except for very small ones) are cut at one time
Shelterwood Logging method of forest harvesting in which up to 70% of trees are cut, leaving small patches of old growth standing to provide seeds for regeneration
Selective Cutting lumbering technique in which only trees of certain type, size, quality are cut
Acid Precipitation rain, snow, or fog created after sulphur dioxide and nitric oxides mix with water vapour in the atmosphere. Acid precipitation kills vegetation and turns lakes acidic, causing fish to die and wildlife to disappear
Silviiculture branch of forestry dealing with the cultivation and care of forests
Primary Industries industries that deals a production of primary products such as minerals that are mined or quarried, or an agricultural product that is harvested in its raw state eg. mine- raw material
Secondary Industries industries dealing with manufacturing or construction eg. factory
Tertiary industries industry that provides services rather than goods eg. ski resort, services
Quaternary Industries services that provide information
Drainage Basins drained by a river and its tributaries. One drainage basin is separated from another by an area of higher land called a watershed.
Watershed an area of high land that separates one drainage basin from another
Withdrawal Use actually removes the water from the human body. Uses thermal power generation and manufacturing, municipal, agricultural, and mining activities
Location where a place is. Every point on earth has a specific or absolute location that can be precisely determined by using latitude and longitude
Relative location deals with the interaction that occurs between and among places
Place refers to the personality or special characteristics of a particular site
Society and Environment Geographers study human/environmental interactions to look at all the effects- positive or negative- of human occupation on the land, atmosphere, and biosphere
Movement resources, products, other life forms, information and ideas move from location to location
Regions a basic unit of geographic study is the region- an area on the earth’s surface that is defined by certain unifying characteristics
Physical Pollution Is the least harmful because it deals with floating garbage, old tires, paper litter, pop cans, and bottles are not pleasant to look at, but are easily spotted so clean up is easy
Biological Pollution Deals with bacteria and viruses that enter lakes and rivers from a variety of source. A lot from sewage of cities and towns, about 20% of Canadian cities put their raw sewage into lakes and rivers
Chemical Pollution Metals and solvents from industrial work can pollute rivers and lakes. Pesticides are used in farming to control weeds, insects and fungi. Petroleum is another form of chemical pollutant that usually contaminates water through oil spills (ship ruptures)
Caldera is a cauldron-like volcanic feature usually formed by a collapse of land following a volcanic eruption
Crater a shallow depression at the top of a volcanic eruption
Lava when molten magma reaches the surface of the crust
Pyroclastic Flow an extremely fast moving cloud of ash, cinder, and lava, most deadly
Cinder Cone volcano is a small volcano whose sides are built from cinders
Strato volcano very tall steep sided mountain type of volcano, most common
Shield Volcano very flat, dome like hill, lava very fluid and levels out the land around the volcano
Hot Spot volcanoes are formed over cracks in plates away from plate boundaries, plumes of heat from Earth's mantle
Ring of Fire most located near plate boundaries and ring of fire, ring of fire is a belt of volcanoes surrounding Pacific Plate
Canadian Shield Volcano Activity. lead+gold. mining, metallic minerals, concentrated minerals into products
Western Cordillera Collision of North American and Pacific Plates, metallic minerals, gold, copper, zinc low enough for highways and railways for tourist
Innuitians North American Plates moved northward (Mesozoic Era), mostly sedimentary but also igneous and metamorphic, cheaper options exist further south
Arctic/Hudson Bay Lowlands made up of series of islands located Canada's far north, gently rolling landscape, sedimentary rock, lignite (a form of coal), used for oil, natural gas, deposits
Atmosphere composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, trace gases make up the rest
Hydrosphere water bodies takes 2/3 of earth's crust
Lithosphere earth's crust, 8 to 32 km deep
Mesosphere earth's mantle
Centrosphere core- outer core- silicon and iron, liquid substance- 2900 km to 5750 km deep inner core- nickel and iron, thicker liquid substance, 5750 km- 6878 km deep
Erosion weathering, or wearing down, of the earth's surface by water, ice, wind, plant, roots, animals and people
Continental Drift that is whether the continents have always been fixed in their present position or whether they have moved around on the face of earth
Canadian Shield Volcano activity, lead and gold, mining, metallic minerals, concentrated minerals into products
Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Glaciation, sedimentary rock, good soil, climate warm, transportation routes, development of cities
Volcano a gap in the Earth's crust where molten rock and after materials escape onto the Earth's surface
Active a volcano that erupts often
Dormant a volcano that hasn't erupted in many years, but could erupt
Extinct a volcano that does not erupt anymore
Magma Chamber Beneath the volcano is a large chamber where molten rock (magma) collects
Conduit the main passageway from the magma chamber to the outside of the volcano
Divergent Country where new crust is generated as the planets pull away from each other eg. Africa
Convergent Boundary where crust is destroyed as one plate divides another eg. Peru and Chile
Transform Fault zone between 2 plates sliding horizontally past one another
Hotspots relatively small, long-lasting, and exceptionally hot region (the Hawaiian hot spots)
Obliquity is when the tilt of Earth's axis change slightly, every 40,000 years
Eccentricity is when the Earth's orbit become more elliptical, every 100,000
Precession when the Earth wobbles on its axis, every 20,00 years
Glacier a slow moving mass of ice
Alpine Glacier occurs in areas of high altitude usually on mountains
Continental Glacier occurs in areas of high latitude (far north or far south)
Cirque a fan shaped valley created by an Alpine Glacier, carved into rock are called Tarns
Arete is a sharp steep ridge
Horn pyramidal peak created by glacial erosion
Hanging Valleys valleys that end abruptly over cliffs
Moraines when glaciers bulldoze material from the sides of mountains, composed of Glacial Till, pile of glacial debris scraped up by a glacier
Striations glaciers make deep scratches in a rock
Outwash Plain the flat area in front of a glacier
Glacial Meltwater washes out in front of the ice creating a flat plain
Drumlin another glacial feature left behind after a continental glacier has melted is a spoon or egg shaped hill
Esker a long narrow ridge created by a glacier
Kettle Lakes when a glacier passes over an area it sometimes scours out the rock and creates shallow depressions
Kame is a large glacial mound composed of till
Erratic is a large boulder turn off a rock face and transported a long distance from its source by a glacier
Deciduous tree which sheds its leaves annually in the fall (broad leaved tree)
Conferious tree with cones and often needle-like leaves (evergreen
Created by: tart612



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