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1st unit ingumentary Med-Surg

what is the epidermis? outer layer of skin
What does epidermis contain? stratum corneum keratom-tough protectiv protein formed by stratum corneum. completely replaced every 35--45 days
what is the dermis? True skin--connective tissue, elastic fibers, blood vessels, nerves, sweat & sebaceous glands, hair follicles
melanin pigment that determines color of skin
what are the 4 functions of skin? protection, temp. regulation, sensory processing, chemical synthesis.
how does skin protect? forms protective barrier, prevents water loss, 1st line of defense
what are calluses? formed-think layer of epidermal cells
what causes a blister to develope? intense friction
how does skin regulate temperature? by dilating and constricting blood vessels
what are the 4 methods of heat loss? radiation-transfer of heat into environment conduction-transfer of heat thru direct contact evaporation-loss of moisture or water convection transfer thru currents of air or liquids.
what is sensory processing? pressure, pain, heat, cold
What is hair made of? keratin and amino acids
what hair grows most rapidly? scalp
what do sebaceous and sweat glands secret? sebum oil
what are they connected to? each hair follicle
where are eccrine glands? groin, mostly water
what are apocrine glands? armpits, nipples, eyes, more sebaceous
what are finger/toenails? hard keratin: protective function: nail root.
Lunulla? crescent moon in nail, abundant cap supply
assessment history of; 1st symptoms, frequency of episodes, precipitatin gfactors, alleviating factors, pain level, pruritus
physical assessment redness, breakdown, rashes, turgor, temp.(back of hand on surface) moisture, color,
nail assessment normal structures, shape & thinckness, color of nail bed, cap refill time.
what is a macule? flat, round colored freckles
what is a papule? elevated with raised border, solid (wart)
what is a vesicle? elevated, filled with serum (blister)
What is a wheal? elevated, irregular border, no free fluid (hives)
what is a pustule? elevated and fillled with puss (boil)
what is a nodule? elevated solid mass that extends into deeper tiss (enlarged lymph node)
what is a cyst? encapsulated round fluid filled or solid mass beneath skin. (tissue growth)
what is a pressure sore? decubitus ulcer: when cap blood flow to an area is reduced. Happens over bony prominences, where skin is compressed against hard surface over time.
Where are common areas for press. sores? coccyx, sacrum or hips, back of head, shoulder blades, heels, elbows, ears.
what are the stages of press. sores? 1. redness 2. blistering or tear 3. shallow crater with drainage 4. deep ulcerated tissues, exposed muscle and bone, most threatening, may lead to sepsis
how to avoid pressure sores? turn frequently (q2hours) keep clean and dry, use moisturizing cleansers, pressure relieving devices, pad body areas, avoid shearing.
what are the risk factors for press. sores? dehydration, diaphoresis, immobility, inactivity, incontinence, edema, malnutrition
what treatment is effective for pressure ulcers open surgical wounds, trauma wounds? negative pressure wound therapy.
what are integumentary diagnostic tests? visual inspection, culture & sensitivity tests, allergy tests, Woods light, potassium hydroxide test, fungal culture, skin biopsy
what some medical, surgical treatments for skin disorders? drug therapy, corticosteroids:antihistimines, antibiotics:antiseptics: scabicides:pediculocides(lice) antiseborrheic agents (dandruff shampoo)keratolytics for warts.
what are some medical/surgical treatments? wet ddressings, cooling soothing effects, sterile procedure for broken skin
accutane medicine for acne
rosacea incurable, manageable disease, skin takes on rosy appearance, caused by lack of dermis support.Nose, forhead, cheeks, chin. Papules, pustules.
2 types of dermatitis allergic dermatitis: sensative to one or more substances like dyes or plants irritant dermatitis: poison ivy, poison oak, sumac, acids and alkalies
treatment for dermatitis remove offending substance, flush with cool water, calamine lotion, and anti-itch lotions
what are triggers for rosacea? hot beverages, spicy foods, environment
what are treatments for rosacea? antibiotics to decrease inflammation, topical anti-inflammatory, laser for thick skin removal.
what is a furuncle? caused by skin infections with organisms harmless on the skin. Integrity of skin compromised, germs inter skin.
what is furunculosis? multiple furuncles
where do furuncles appear? anywhere but usually around neck, axillary, groin
what are appearance of furuncles? raised painful pustule surrounded by erythmia.hard to touch.
what are treatments for furuncles (boils)? hot wet soaks, antibiotics, incision and drainage,
what is psoriasis? chronic non-infections red patches with silver scales, triggered by emotional distress, seasonal changes, infection and hormonal changes. Cells proliferate fast, old cannot keep up. Keratinocytes.
what is treatment for psoriasis? corticosteroids, photo chemotherapy, vitamin D, retinoids
where is psoriasis found? elbow, knees, trunk, scalp
What are the various "tineas"? tinea pedis-foot, tinea capitas-head, tinea corpus-body, tinea cruris-jock itch (groin)
what are scabies? itch mite, caused by skin-to-skin contact
what's the diagnostic tests for scabies? visual inspection, ink or mineral oil test
what is treatment for scabies? scabicides applied neck down 8-12 hours, then washed off. Wash lenins, clothes,
Created by: 100000907582862