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CNS Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system is comprised of what nerves afferent and efferent
Sensory nerves AKA afferent/dorsal-body to brain
Motor nerves AKA Efferent/Ventral-brain to body
amount of CSF flowing 125-150 mls
CSF produced per day 600 cc
Purpose of CSK -shock absorber -keeps brain bouyant -delivers O2 and nutrients -removes wastes
Meninges dura,arachnoid(collagen and elastin fibers),subarachnoid (filled with CSF),piamater
Falx Cebri runs inferior to superior on cerebrum
Tentorum Seperates cerebellum from occipital
Cerebral cortex outermost layer,involved in higher mental processes,movement,perceptions,visceral funtions
Limbic system Influences emotions, motivation,mood, sensations, pain n pleasure
Villis function increases surface area,protrudes through Dura mater
Frontal lobe fx personality,higher mental processing,voluntary motor function,motivation, agression,mood, speech,morality
Basic units of the nervous system Neurons and neuroglia
if MAP falls cerebral arteries dilate and cerebral flow is maintained
Multiple sclerosis causes what Demyelination
Single elongated projection of a neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body is axon
MOA of naloxone competes with narcotics at the receptor sites
comotose pt with preserved pupillary fx is what cause metabolic
Reflexes allow which event A response to be generated immediately to a sensory impulse
The pain of a cluster headache is concentrated where in and around one eye/nasal congestion and tearing
cannot establish a line need med for seizure IM what med and dose lorazepam 4mg im , and then diazepam, and then midazolam
whats typical of syncope lightheadiness before event
Afferent neurons transmit impulses in which direction toward the brain
Efferent neurons transmit impulses to which locality muscle tissue
what is a characteristics of epilepsy has no know correctable or avoidable causes
auditory aura is a sign of what seizure
compression of the oculomotor nerve results in what response unilateral fixed dilated pupil
Naloxone reverses effects of what class of meds opium derivatives
bundles of parallel axons and the associated sheats are known as what type of matter white
Collection of nerve cells are what color matter grey matter
Gray matter is the site of what in the nervous system integration
8 D's of stroke management detection,dispatch,delivery,door,data,decision,drug,disposition
8 D's of stroke decision is for what Fibrinolytic therapy
Most important action to be taken with a stroke patient rapid transport to appropriate hospital
what is a brain abcess accumalation of pus
hyperventilation will cause cerebral blood flow to decrease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually fatal within 2-4 years of diagnosis
Diencephalon contains what Thalamus and hypothalamus
Spina bifida characteristic a portion of the spinal cord is left exposed
2 major events to cause a stroke occlusion and hemorrhage
in cininati stroke scale whats abnormal one arm drifts down compared to the other
what assesment carries the worst prognosis flaccidity
nodes of ranvier allow what impulses to jump from one node to the next
difference between TIA and stroke the s/s of TIA resolve within 24 hrs
seizure in children with no movement is what petit mal
action potentials are propagated by what influx of sodium into the neuron
Parkinsons is caused by damage to what basal ganglia
Jacksonian is what type of seizure partial seizure
what is true of strokes 85% of pts have the type that will benefit from fibrinolytic therapy
which space in the brain contains CSF ventricles
what is the circle of willis Safeguard tp ensure continued blood supply to the brain
a drop in BP from 200/140 to 100/60 idicates what the brain has probably herniated
an inherited Dx that causes slow progressive degeneration of muscle fibers and causes the pt to die by age 12 muscular dystrophy
worst headache of my life sign of what hemmorraghic stroke
pain by moaning and movement but no other response, no focal findings, into comatose quickly hysterical
the best indicator of a serious neurological condition rapidly worsening level of consiousness
Decerebrate rigidity results from the impairment of what Subcortical regions of the brain
most helpful tool when differenciating between structual or metablioc causes of coma pupillary response
decorticate rigidity flexor response due to damage of the cortex of the brain
Decerebrate rigidity extend response due to damage of the subcortical areas of the brain
Flaccidity caused by brainstem or cord damage-the worst
Babinskis sign (plantar reflex) abnormal extension on foot in adults
dilated pupils not reactive to light whats affected brainstem or severe cerebral anoxia
Cranial nerve III-oculomotor pupillary reaction
cranial nerve II-optic viual acuity and field
Cranial nerve IV -trochlear eye movement
Cranial nerve VII-facial MOtor fuction of face-smiling
Conjugate gaze deviation of both eyes to either side-damage to brain tissue (lesion)
Dysconjugate gaze deviation of eyes to opposite sides-damage to the brainstem
Coma of structural causes effect what sides one sided or asymmetrical
coma od metabolic or toxic causes finings on both sides of the body
AV malformation abnormal connection between veins and arteries
Generalized Seizures absense seizures,atonic,myoclonic and tonic clonic seizures
Absense seizures (peteit mal) occur most often in children between 4-12 yrs, no posturing or ativity
Atonic seizures abrupt loss of muscle tone (drop attack) sudden collapse
Myoclonic seizure brief muscle contractions, ivolve on arm or foot
Tonic clonic seizures preceded by aura, loss of consiousness, loss of muscle tone, flexion n extention
Patial seizure arises from cortical lesions, may be simple or complex
Simple partial seizure activity in the motor or sensory cortex, clonic activity usually to one body part
Jacksonian Seizure partial seizure activity that spreads in an orderly way to surrounding areas
non epileptic seizure (hysterical or pseudo) can mimic a true seizure, do not respond to usual treatment, ended by sharp commands
Tension Headache caused by muscle contractions of the face,neck and scalp. dull persistant and non throbbing
Migraine severe,incapacitating. preceded by visual or GIdisturbabnces , throbbing pain on one side of the head-associated wiith constriction and diilation of vld vsls
cluster headaches occur in bursts, begin several hours after falling asleep,-located in or around one eye
sinus headache pain in forehead,nasal area and eyes
brain abcess accumalation of pus
Dementia slow progressive loss of awarness of time and place,irreversible
Alzheimers disease nerve cells in the cerebral cortex die and the brain substance shrinks
Picks disease-(frontaltemporal dementia) neurodegenerative disease, shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes (FTD)
Huntingtons disease genetically programmed degeneration of neurons.-causes uncontrolled ,ovements, loss of intellectual daculties and emotional disturbances. (passed from parent to child)
Creutzfeldt-jakobdisease (CJD) fatal brain disorder-occurs at age 60,die within 1 yr. rapidly progressive dementia,personality changes,involuntary movements
Muscular dystrophy inherited muscle disorder-affects mostly male children
Multiple sclerosis (MS) demyelination-autoimmune dx.numbness, tingling to paralysis
guillain-barre syndrom (GBS) rare autoimmune disorder, affects the bodys peripheral nervous system,weakness, tingling in legs spead to arms eventually paralysis
Dystonia local or diffuse changes in muscle tone-painful muscle spasms
torticollis a painful neck spasm
parkinsons disease degeneration of nerve cells in the basal ganglia, muscles are overly tensed, tremors, slow movement, shuffling walk
Normal pressue hydrocephalu (NPH) abnormal incears in cerebrospinal fluid in the cavities
Trigeminal Neuralgia (central pain syndrom) dx of the trigeminal nerve V-paroxysmal episodes of excrutiating pain to the fave,cheeks,lips,gums or chin
Acoustic Neuroma noncancerous tumor that involves the acoustic nerve VIII, grows slowly, affects hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia i9rritation of cranial nerve IX-severe pain in the ear, nose and throat
hemifacial spasm frequent involuntary contractions of muscles on one side of the face, caused by bld vessel that presses on the facial nerve VII
Bell's Palsy paralysis of the facial muscles, caused by inflammation of the facial nerve VII-temporary, happens suddenly
Amyotrphic lateral sclerosis (ALS)Lou Gehrigs disease Motor neuron disease-people over 50,more common in men, deterioration of both upper and lower neuron tracts* death occurs 2-4 yrs
Progressive Bulbar palsy only muscles of the tongue, jaw fance and larynx are involved
Primary lateral sclerosis when only corticospinal processes are affected
PROGRESSIVE SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY only lower motor neurons are affected
Peripheral neuropathy damage to or irritaion of either the axons or their myelin sheaths to the peripheral nervous system
Spina bifida congential defect-vertebra fails to develop, spinal cord is exposed
Spina bifida occulta most commonand least serious-little evidence of defect
Spina bifida meningocele nerve tissue of the spinal cordusually is intactand covered with sac
Spinabifida Myelomeningocele severest form, severly handicappedmalformed spinal cord
Created by: rebeccabelleth



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